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Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
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HELE NUMRE » RØD SERIE » Rød Serie 40 Social ulighed - Fra studieværkstedet » Rød Serie 40 - Abstracts
Rød Serie nr. 40. Social ulighed - Fra studieværkstedet Pris: 120,00 DKK
Line Lauritsen, educational psychology student at Aarhus University: ‘Social heritage’ – categorisation effects and guiding expectations Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 6-15. Negative ‘social inheritance’ – an idea linked to the assumption, that different forms of inequality are inherited from one generation to the next. However, is this idea causing more harm than good? – Is the use of the term ‘social inheritance’ describing or constructing inequality? These are just some of the questions I, with a deconstructive discourse analysis of the term ‘social inheritance’, will seek to answer in this article, which offers a critical look behind privileges and oppressive power structures. The focus of the article is to analyse the effects of categorisation and normative dichotomies in society, which could limit the ways of becoming for subjects. It should be noted that the categorisation in itself does not necessarily produce harmful effects; categories create order in a complex world in which subjects relate to each other, but with the article, I want to challenge the mechanisms of oppression and normative barriers that arise as a consequence of categorisation.
Anja B. Vinsten Christiansen, postgraduate student at Aarhus University – Educational Psychology: Discursive practices, social classes and state schools Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 16-22. Children with behaviour that falls out of the prevailing norm of accepted behaviour are often categorised in normative terms. Categorisations such as children of disadvantaged parents, disadvantaged children, children who are carriers of negative social legacy, ‘the uncivilised children’, are examples of categorisations that children with behaviour that falls outside the prevailing norm of accepted behaviour are associated with. These categorisations create expectations that children who are positioned as vulnerable, will perform worse than their classmates do. Such expectations can create self-fulfilling prophecies. This article is based on a poststructuralist view where a revolt against the prevailing norms can be a way for professionals to work for a reduction of schoolchildren’s vulnerability.
Merete Jørgensen, postgraduate student at Aarhus University – Educational Psychology: Ethnicity as part of a social inequality problem in Denmark Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 23-30. Research suggests that ethnic minorities are marginalised in Denmark. Søren Winther’s 2005 publications on ethnic minorities for the Danish National Institute of Social Research portray, amongst other things, the widespread sense of discrimination experienced by ethnic minorities. According to Susanne Veik, minority groups have access to relatively fewer social resources, which means they have a more limited agency over their own living conditions than the majority group does. A 2006 report concludes that ethnic minority youth remain overrepresented in areas such as criminality, unemployment, at-risk youth, etc. (Jespersen, C. & Sivertsen, M.B. 2006). The above descriptions are but a few examples from countless studies that suggest that ethnic social inequality exists in Denmark. The social constructivist theoretical perspective offers us an opportunity to break with social categorisations. This opportunity can mean additional and alternative options for individuals in minority groups who, from a social constructivist point of voew, are positioned in certain ways because of these social categorisations. The aim of this article is therefore to illuminate the impact of this opportunity for ethnic minorities within the population. 
Karen Margrethe Nikolajsen, undergraduate student, Educational Psychology, Aarhus University, Campus Emdrup: Risk and protective factors in the work with crime-prone children and adolescents Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 31-43. The article has its prime focus on the practical and preventive work of reducing the number of youth criminals in Denmark. It examines the risk factors and general research on social inequality within youth crime and focuses on the non-cognitive developmental effects it has on the individual.
Studies show that children growing up in families with low Social Economical Status (SES) are at a high risk of heading in the direction of criminality. They grow up in less supportive families, a higher risk of violence and abuse, and with lower cognitive development compared to children from high SES. The article will, compared to other research, focus on the non-cognitive developmental problems as a result of risk factors. In this case, it revolves around e.g. anti-social behaviour, aggressiveness, lack of motivation, lack of self-regulation, bad self-image, lack of hope and lack of empathy. All these risk factors are coherent with developing criminal actions. In the preventive work for practitioners in the field of criminal youth, the article presents a working and analytical model that focuses on the protective factors necessary to counter balance the effect of the risk factors. The model includes the diverse settings of the child; family, school and social network/leisure activities. It brings into play several elements that the child needs to develop for protective factors. The model also contains a review of the quality of relations, physical environment and activities in the daily life of the child.
Joséphine Münch, postgraduate student at Aarhus University – Educational Psychology: Freire and social inequality in Denmark – Part of the solution? Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 44-53. Social inequality and poverty are on the rise in Denmark. Despite numerous efforts to respond to this issue, it seems that great challenges remain in solving the 80-20% imbalance, which has characterised Danish Society for several decades. Inequality and poverty have financial, political, social, cultural and psychological consequences for society as a whole, and particularly for the vulnerable individuals, whose living conditions and future opportunities are vastly tainted by this state of inequality. The following article considers an approach, which only is employed to limited degrees in Western Countries, but which over many years, has led to convincing results with regards to lifting communities out of poverty and out of the worst consequences of poverty. Paulo Freire’s ‘liberation pedagogy’ is presented and discussed in light of the Danish Welfare State. The manner in which liberation pedagogy can contribute to the above-mentioned challenges in Danish society, as well as its limitations and possibilities are at the centre of this discussion.
Line Rosenvold, bachelor in social education and undergraduate student, Educational Psychology, Danish School of Education (DPU), Aarhus University, Campus Emdrup: The day care centers role in the reproduction of social inequality in Denmark Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 54-63. The purpose of this article is to discuss the need of a more nuanced debate regarding the reproduction of the social heritage in Denmark. While using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of habitus and capital, the article illuminates how social heritage connotes a universal transfer of competencies and limitations from generation to generation. The article explains how the child’s habitual dispositions are either recognised or overruled as capital in the civilizing day care centers, which, based on the hegemonic middle class norms and values, defines the criteria regarding the correct or incorrect behaviour. Thus, the article concludes that the present ongoing reproduction of the social heritage cannot be understood based upon the structures of family only, but must also be understood connected to the contextual areas in which the habitus is either being recognised or overruled. Thus, the findings suggest the need for a more diverse debate, which reflects and includes the role of the kindergarten as significant. Furthermore, the article raises the question of whether  it still reasonable to use the concept of social heritage in this debate, as the concept disclaims the responsibility of society and day care center.
Melanie Brøndal Escañuela, undergraduate student, Educational Psychology, Danish School of Education (DPU), Aarhus University: Inequality in the judicial system – Ethnic minorities overrepresentation in crime statistics Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 64-71. Despite the Danish constitution stating that everyone is equal in the eyes of the law, the police will more often seek out possible criminals among ethnic minorities than among the ethnic majority, thereby making it more likely for ethnic minorities to be caught engaging in illegal activities than for ethnic Danish people. Studies have shown an overrepresentation of ethnic minority youths in crime statistics, even when adjusting for age and socioeconomic factors. The purpose of this article was to investigate possible reasons for this. Based on current research and the social-constructionist knowledge paradigm with the scope of language, relations and constructions; this article looks at the possible consequences of police work and its methods. These methods can attribute to a self-proclaiming prophecy in which the ethnic minorities subconsciously live up to the framework put in place by the police and society, and thereby portray themselves as criminals. As such, social-work revolving around at-risk ethnic minority youths, as well as the police code of conduct, should incorporate these findings.
Camilla Kaas Jørgensen, postgraduate student in Educational Psychology, MSc in Psychology (Educational Psychology): Negative expectations of families with low socioeconomic backgrounds create unequal opportunities for children Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 72-78. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background should have the same opportunities to develop- and participate in communities – but they haven’t. The parents’ lack of resources and inequality of opportunities, will most likely be reproduced, thus the childrens’ experience will be affected and impair their opportunities, but it also shows that the professionals in the childrens’ surroundings, with great probability will impair their options in everyday life (SFI, 2005). A single child develops in social contexts, and the surroundings play a decisive role for the childrens’ development (Ringmose, 2015). As a professional learns what social status the family has, the professional often places negative expectations on the child, which influences the childrens’ daily behaviour and long-term development (Jensen, 2015).
Louise Maud Schäffer, MA Education (Social Sciences), child and adolescent consultant, MISI, Sermersooq Municipality, Greenland: Equality at kindergarten age Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2016, Vol 54, 2, 79-94. The focus of this article is to investigate whether it is possible to increase equality between boys and girls in the educational system, as well as on the job market through early measures at kindergarten. The project is based on a social constructivist perspective on gender, and argues for pedagogues’ influence on children’s construction of gender.
The kindergarten is a social and cultural organisation, which interacts with the production and reproduction of gender. It is in the kindergarten that the secondary socialisation takes place and where the child internalises the expectations and demands drawn from the general institutional order, for example, how to be a “real” girl or a “real” boy. The child learns through feedback from their significant others, such as pedagogues, which behaviour is expected of them. The general institutional expectations are expressed in the interaction between pedagogues and respectively boys and girls, where the children internalise the “truisms” that lie in the culture. In addition, the children also internalise the objectified world through play, which is why particular play is essential to the construction of gender. Pedagogues can, in this context, have a major influence on who has access to the various games, for example, is it legitimate to be a part of “the fight” as a girl, or play with dolls as a boy? What is legitimate can be expressed through recognition, but just as importantly through lack of recognition. Different games stimulate development of different characteristics, for example, the father-mother-child game stimulates caring and an orientation towards the relational, whereas fight-games stimulate bravery and an orientation towards competition. Competences, which the children in later life will draw from both in the educational system and on the job market. This might be the reason why today we are facing the problem that boys perform worse than girls in the educational system, where the relational structures rule. In contrast, men still hold most of the top-positions in society, and earn a markedly higher salary than women. This research suggests that a greater focus on gender at kindergarten, where pedagogues operate with open gender categories, might help to increase equality in the educational system, as well as on the job market.
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