Abstracts ppt 3/2020 - Artikler fra forskning og praksis
Children’s perspectives on absence is meaningful when considered from the perspective of the life that they lead
By Jonas Yde Højgaard
This article argues that children’s perspectives on absence are meaningful when considered from the perspective of the life that they lead . It then attempts to shed light on this matter by exploring a case of two eighth-grade boys with a high amount of absence, based on group interviews and two weeks of observation . The analysis focuses on understanding the boys’ reasons for their absence in light of how they present the contexts that are of important to them . This analysis shows that absences are meaningful actions when seen in the light of how the boys under- stand their school, home, friends, themselves and their future . Each of these under- standings are intertwined with each other, such that contexts, which do not seem related to absences, may nevertheless affect the boys’ reasons for the absence . One implication is that if we do not understand children’s own perspectives on the con- texts in which they take part and how this relates to their reasons for absence, then interventions run the risk of not affecting absence and having unintended conse- quences .
Therapeutical treatment of children and adolescents with sexual behaviour problems who have impairments or mental disabilities by applying the Network Therapy Model
By Vanessa Schmidt-Rasmussen
This article describes common challenges connected to therapeutical work with children and adolescents with mental disabilities and impairment who exhibit sex- ual behaviour problems . The article refers to risk factors that increase the likeli- hood of recidivism and it describes the importance of the participation of caregivers in the actual treatment . Afterwards, the article describes a therapy model called “netværksforløb” . “Netværksforløb” (Network Therapy Model) is developed by JanusCentret in Denmark to help children and adolescents with sexual behaviour problems who have psychiatric diagnoses, mental disabilities and/or mental retar- dation . The goal of this method is to prevent recidivism of sexual assault .
The method is characterised by the involvement of the child’s network (parents and professionals) in the therapy . The focus is on providing the network with rele- vant tools to further work with the children/adolescents in their everyday life .
The method consists of (1) education of the network, (2) therapy with the child/ adolescent and network, (3) supervision of the network . Each part is briefly descri- bed in the article .
This article also describes the positive outcomes due to the involvement of the network and the usage of specific tools that help children/adolescents with psychia- tric diagnoses and mental retardation to change their sexual behaviour . It menti- ons the role of school counselling in the treatment, specifically how schools can con- tribute to positive outcomes and what they can gain by active participation in the therapy .
The conclusion is that children/adolescents with sexual behaviour problems profit from participation in this treatment method .
“I don’t want to do that!” — Professionals work on what they have not yet understood
By Anna Sejer Nielsen
Young people who are placed in a 24-hour care centre sometimes encounter difficul- ties which can be instrumental in their opportunities for participation at school, a work placement and a leisure activity . At the same time, young people can be dis- missive, or have difficulty talking to professionals about what is hard for them .
Therefore, it can sometimes seem unclear to the professionals what might be at stake for young people . How can the professionals work with what they do not yet understand? The article points to the importance professional curiosity, explorati- on, professional reflection and collaboration between professionals can have in rela- tion to being able to open up new understandings for the young person’s situation and so to also inspire professionals to spot unthought of and new opportunities for action .
Community-based sports for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder
By Aske Glindvad & Anette Bentholm
The number of people with an Autism diagnosis has been steadily increasing in Denmark since the release of ICD-10 in 1994, which means incidence rates today show that 1 per cent of all Danish children and adolescents are diagnosed within the autism spectrum (Hansen et al .: 2015) . Overall, the Danish Social Agency (Kaufmanas, 2014) estimates that up to 55,000 people in Denmark are within the target group . Thus, people with autism spectrum disorder constitute an essential part of the psychiatric treatment programmes with pedagogical processes in Den- mark (Kaufmanas: 2014) . Increasingly, the number of people worldwide with autism has meant an increased focus on pedagogical approaches to the treatment of autism . Particularly about which approaches can be proved to have a beneficial ef- fect from a different methodological basis (Ibid .) .
Traditionally, the approaches have been influenced by a science-based approach to pedagogy based on the various difficulties that characterise the target group (Gu- stafson & Mørck, 2013) . In recent years there has been a development in the field, and there has been an increasing interest in the concept of quality of life, which has some other starting points for learning and development than the biological founda- tions (Zhen-Huan L, 2016) . The most recent development is in relation to a social- practical learning understanding, from an individual focus to focusing on the communities and relationships that are possible in the contexts in which people with autism move (Gustafson & Mørck, 2013) . With the “Community Sports Educa- tion and Quality of Life in People with Autism Spectrum Disorder” project, we build this approach and strive for relationship formation, active participation and community team spirit at Autism Center Nord-Bo . The results show that there is a positive development towards becoming part of a community and feeling included, which is a crucial prerequisite for socialisation . In this way, the team spirit of sport is not the goal in itself, but the means to achieve the goal of the participants’ empo- werment in a social community .
Not like other children. Parenthood when children are classified as spe- cial needs children
By Bjørg Kjær
Over the past few decades in Denmark, as in many countries, there has been an in- creasing tendency to define ‘difficulties’ in terms of psychiatric diagnoses, while at the same time, there has also been a rising demand for inclusion .
Based on an ethnographic study that was conducted in three Danish early-child- hood education and care (ECEC) institutions, this article addresses issues related to what happens when ECEC staff meet with parents . The study used participant observations of ECEC institutions’ daily practices, sound recordings of teacher-pa- rent conferences, and interviews with ECEC staff and parents . I will present some examples from three cases to examine the social practice surrounding children who are problematised and how this changes parenthood .
Doubt and Courage – Irreverence towards established preconceptions and dominant discourses
By Nicola Nyhave
The article emphasises the importance of challenging dominant discourses . It di- scusses the consequences of categorising and separating things that belong in con- text, and the consequences when we put too much emphasis on what we can count and measure, the evidence-based practice . The ADHD diagnosis is used as an example of how a one-sided focus – favouring the neurobiological and biomedical approach – can have inexpedient and potentially damaging effects on a young per- son’s possibility to develop and thrive, and consequently negative consequences on society as a whole, which is illustrated through case examples . The article ends with recommendations regarding ADHD . The article is based on a transdisciplinary scientific tradition and stresses the importance of focusing on the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors in children’s lives .
Can different practices in relation to delayed school entry help explain the disparity between Denmark and Norway with regard to gender-based differences in the results of PIRLS 2016?
By Egil Gabrielsen, Kjersti Lundetræ and Jan Mejding
In PIRLS 2016, gender-based differences in reading literacy among 11-year-olds were 1 .6 times greater in Norway than in Denmark . There was also a strong corre- lation between birth month and reading literacy among students in Norway . In light of the fact that almost half the population of Danish boys born in December postpone starting school, while the same is true of only a small minority in Norway, this article examines whether these divergent practices can explain the disparity in gender-based reading literacy differences in the two countries in PIRLS 2016 . A stepwise linear regression analysis shows that the delay in when boys born at the end of the year start school in Denmark cannot explain the disparity in gender-ba- sed differences between Denmark and Norway and that, in both countries, delayed school start is linked to lower proficiency in reading literacy . The findings also show that there is a stronger correlation between birth month and reading literacy in Norway than in Denmark when controlling for birth year . The findings from Den- mark also indicate that a one-year delay in starting school does not in itself eradi- cate differences in reading literacy . Any such delay should therefore be followed up with a pedagogical plan of action to strengthen the student’s language comprehen- sion and emergent literacy .
Keywords: school start age; month of birth; reading literacy; gender differences; PIRLS
Deep Learning in elementary schools
By Preben Kirkegaard & Micki Sonne Kaa Sunesen
The article addresses the concept of Deep Learning . The concept is seen in an ele- mentary school perspective . In the article, Deep Learning is related to other theo- ries of learning . This shows that the content of Deep Learning has been produced by many different theorists in the past, and thus is not an entirely new phenome- non that has not been heard before . However, the relevance of Deep Learning is currently more relevant than ever before, and in that the concept deals with a spe- cific element of the learning process, namely the deepened, persistent and intrinsi- cally motivated approach to own learning . Deep Learning is further developed in two ways . Firstly, the concept is regarded as a suggestion of what can characterise learning processes in the elementary school of the future, and secondly, we reflect on what this future can potentially mean for the teacher’s competences . The article is thus a theoretical article that reflects some of the trends of the time in the prima- ry school field.