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Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
Det faglige vindue for anvendt psykologi
DE SENESTE NUMRE » 51. årgang - 2014 » 51.årgang - 4 - 2014 Tema: Tidlige indsatsers langsigtede betydning
 

Kraglund, Kornelia (Candidate of psychology). Early Prevention Begins in Pregnacy. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2014, Vol.51,4, 4 -13. - This article explores how early social inequality is reflected in pregnancy. It also proposes essential elements of an early educational psychological prevention in pregnancy. The article concludes that early social inequality appears in pregnancy and at birth by various biological and environmental factors, and that these should be seen in the context of psychosocial conditions. The article draws on a relational perspective on inclusion, based on resources and potentials and concludes that there is a need for a general directed early preventive education in pregnancy for all first time parents that strengthens parenting skills and expands the network. It finds that there is a need to support and strengthen the mother-fetal attachment, to prevent stress in pregnancy, and to develop the parents’ ability to accommodate their feelings in relation to their child. The article concludes that parenting courses in pregnancy have a great potential to prevent social inequalities through general directed interventions before the need of individually directed intervention occurs. Parenting courses thereby has a great potential as an inclusive prevention if in fact it focuses on the participants’ resources, rather than focusing on the family’s problems.  - Kornelia Kraglund 
 
Hansen; Ole, Henrik (Psychologist). High Quality in the Care of Small Children. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2014, Vol.51, 4, 14 - 23. - The article focuses on high quality in professional day care. Quality is a topic that can cause discussions among preschool teachers and parents. There are many views about what it takes to ensure pedagogical quality. The author argues that the toddler has an inherent and natural need of cohesion and that the child’s learning, development and well-being is related to how educators can establish conditions for children, which includes cohesion and intimacy. Theoretically the article takes the reader through evolutionary biology, cultural psychology and pedagogical research, and concludes that the atmosphere in day care, including educator’s commitment is one of the foundations of qualified day care. The author emphasizes organization and reflections about educational elements and the importance of critical leadership, importance of professionalism and knowledge of how the preschool teacher can orchestrate intentional zones of intimacy and interaction with the youngest children. - Ole Henrik Hansen.
 
Berliner, Peter (Professor of psychology at The University of Copenhagen). Early childhood education and care, social resilience and community psychology. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2014, Vol.51, 4, 24 - 32. - The contribution of community psychology to our understanding of early intervention and resilience is presented and discussed. The article starts with a short description of early childhood education and care. It then presents theories of community psychology and social resilience. It concludes that community psychology provides an understanding of vulnerability in early childhood not only as a loss of supportive relations with care providers but also as a loss of contact to a broader system of social support in the discursive, social and material environment. Furthermore, it is argued that community psychology adds a pragmatic and practical dimension to ecological psychology. - Peter Berliner.
 
Wæver, Mette (Psychologist). Developmental Psychopathology and the Transactional Model. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2014, Vol.51, 4, 33 - 52. - The article presents a general introduction to base concepts and assumptions, the psychopathology of development, and the transactional development model, central to understanding developmental processes - healthy and pathological - found in the psychopathology of development. This Is discussed primarily in relation to analyses and findings of development and risks. These concepts may function as a framework for early Intervention. It is argued that clinical research can produce insights, promoting new theoretical progress and understanding of the etiology of psychical disorders. - Mette Wæver. 
 
Ringsmose, Charlotte (Professor MSO, AU). Long Term Effects of Early Intervention. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2014, Vol.51, 4, 53 - 61. - . According to Heckman, 2003 schooling after the second grade plays only a minor role in creating or reducing gaps which is much contradictive to the attention that is granted school quality in policy debates. Achievement gaps are documented from a very early age and onwards throughout the pedagogical and educational institutions. In order to raise quality in a lifelong learning perspective we must focus more on early childhood, and on quality in the environments for young children. Good learning environments raise children’s IQ and performances and in a developmental perspective prevent exclusion. - Charlotte Ringsmose. 
 
Holm, Claus (Lecturer at the University of Aarhus).Paradigm Shifts Towards a New Life Skill Pedagogy. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2014, Vol.51, 4, 62 - 76. - This article describes how a paradigm shift takes place within life skill pedagogy in a Danish context. The paper starts with the question whether the paradigm shift consists of a shift from a pedagogy with focus on risk and vulnerability to a pedagogy which focuses on promoting resilience. The question is answered using a social analytic mapping approach to the last 40-45 years of research in educational work with children with social and educational problems. The historical starting point for the analysis is the 1960s and 1970s perception of the hereditary  of these problems and the end point is the 2010s research into the concept of the strength-enhancing child, where improvements in the child’s strength is realized by exposing it to high, challenging and appropriate expectations. The result of the analysis is the identification of paradigm shift, but not just one that promotes the resilience of children at risk, but a shift that includes a new theoretical and practical focus on a life skill pedagogy which aims to promote individuals – so called – anti fragility by exposing these individuals to high, challenging and appropriate expectations. - Claus Holm
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