|Alenkær, Rasmus (Psychologist, ph.d.). Inclusion of Pupils with Social Emotional
Problems in the School. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48,
3, 175 – 188. – The article focuses on the conclusions from the ph.d. dissertation,
“Working with AKT in the Inclusive School”, which is based on an empirical study in
the municipality of Esbjerg. The empirical data are discussed in a critical perspective
in relation to the school policy in Esbjerg, the governmental AKT-recommendations,
and comprehensive theories of inclusion. It is concluded that the field of AKT displays
several developmental needs, particularly in regard to role-definition, policy,
and education. – Rasmus Alenkær.
Nielsen, Bjarne (Chairman of the board of The Danish Association of School Psychologists).
Inclusion in the School – A Task for Many Actors. Pædagogisk
Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol. 48, 3, 189 – 200. – Politicians demand more inclusion.
The costs of special education must be reduced via the development of normal
education to encompass more pupils. There are many prerequisites for this to happen,
and it requires the cooperation of many actors at all levels in society. At the
societal level changes in attitudes and culture are needed. The conditions of child
families must be prioritized, and the quality of day care institutions is decisive. At
the school level structural changes are needed to prevent the schools from producing
more problematic pupil behavior. It is also necessary to develop necessary teacher
competences – including the special educational ones - at school level and municipal
level. It is especially important to focus on the teachers’ capacity to cooperate. School
psychology is a central partner at all levels in the school system. – Bjarne Nielsen.
Svendsen; Gøye, Thorn (Psychologist, governmental administrator of the PMTO
and PALS programs). Evidence Based Inclusive Practice. Pædagogisk Psykologisk
Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 201 – 215. – It is being realized that usual experience
based educational and special educational practices are insufficient to solve stigmatizing
and exclusion. New approaches, changes in practice, and in cooperation are already
being introduced in a number of municipalities on a basis of research findings
and with clear strategies of implementation. This, however, demands a showdown
with the widespread thinking that development is best helped by loosely based, unsystematic
developmental projects where “A thousand flowers bloom”. A truly, fundamental
change of practice happens through visible, cogent leadership building on
strong, theories, and research backed by clear political and administrative decisions.
Therefore the shyness towards evidence based work must be deleted completely in
practice as well as in research. – Gøye Thorn Svendsen.
Majgaard, Klaus (Chief executive of the municipality of Furesø). The Architects of
Inclusion. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 216 – 232. – If segregation
in institutions and schools are to be changed it demands strategic leadership. The
article draws an outline of strategic, educational leadership displayed in a dialogue
between politicians, administration, institution, and parents. This dialogue places
bearing marks for the development of learning climates, and it comprises as different
themes as ethics, understanding, societal mechanisms of exclusion, educational beliefs,
models of goals and economy, systems of diagnosing, and the organization of the
school psychological services and other special functions. The dynamics of strategic,
educational leadership comprises these functions: understanding the mechanisms of
exclusion – defining goals for inclusion – developing learning environments – planning
special functions, models for budgets, and organization. – Klaus Majgaard.
Schaarup, Tine & Kehlet, Karen (Authorized psychologists). The Psychological
Educational Evaluation in a Time of Inclusion. Pædagogisk Psykologisk
Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 233 – 244. – The psychological, educational evaluation
of the child is required by law, and it takes up much time for educational psychologists.
In view of many efforts to increase inclusion from the Ministry of Education,
The Association of Municipalities, the government, and the Ministry of Finance it is
found relevant to consider whether the PEE needs a facelift. Based on the Theory of
Position and on narrative and systemic psychology it is discussed how the PEE might
become a vehicle for support of the development of the child in concord with inclusion.
– Tine Schaarup and Karen Kehlet.
Armstrong, Thomas (Ph.D, educator and psychologist in the fields of multiple intelligences).
Neurodiversity – A Concept Whose Time Has Come. Pædagogisk
Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 245 – 248. –Based on his recent book, “Neurodiversity:
Discovering the Extraordinary Gifts of Autism, ADHD, Dyslexia, and
Other Brain Differences”, the author presents his eight principles of Neurodiversity.
This article is written in English. – Bjørn Glæsel.
Hansen, Janne, Hedegaard (Ph.D.). Barriers for Inclusion in Educational
Practice. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 249 – 257. – Inclusion
and exclusion are two related and necessary processes in the establishment and
maintenance of communities. They both relate to the boundaries of diversity and
complexity in a community, and in principle inclusion and exclusion have nothing
to do with the special needs or potential difficulties of children. Therefore we cannot
create inclusive communities by excluding exclusion, since the constitutive features
of the community make this impossible. The challenge to the professionals thus is
both to develop inclusive environments which are characterized by a high degree of
diversity and complexity, and to ensure the cohesion of the community by drawing
a limit between diversity and complexity. As a consequence, we must explore how
and where the limit between inclusion and exclusion is made by the professionals in
educational practice , in order to challenge and displace this limit and thereby realize
more inclusive environments, without constituting a threat to the cohesion of the
society. – Janne Hedegaard Hansen.
Nielsen; Henning, W, (Psychologist). Educational Psychology and the Inclusive
School. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 258 – 267. – Based
on the ongoing discussion of the roles of school psychology, and inspired by the writings
of Donald Schön and Johannessen the author discusses the need of change. A
change from the limited and outdated role as an expert to that of a reflective practician.
Such a change is a prerequisite if educational psychologists are to participate
in the creation of an inclusive school. – Bjørn Glæsel.
Myong, Lene (Ph.D.). Become Danish: Transnational Adoption in the Perspective
of Inclusion and Exclusion. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011,
Vol.48, 3, 268 – 276. - In her dissertation the author interviewed 35 adult adoptees
from Korea, most of whom were raised in white Danish families. The question of how
to become Danish was central. The answers agree that visions and efforts to include
the adoptees rely on their assimilation of Danish norms. When do offers of inclusion
become coercion into inclusion? The author points to the need to visualize and reflect
on the exclusion within inclusion and its blind spots. – Bjørn Glæsel
Nielsen, Jørn (Clinical psychologist in Vejle). Inclusion and Exclusion – a Cultural
and Professional Criticism with Developmental Perspectives. Pædagogisk
Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 277 – 288. – Inclusion has been on the
agenda for many years. Great efforts have been made but with limited success. The
article discusses some of the underlying cultural and professional discourses that
contribute to the explanation of this situation. Its focus is on the tendency to individualize
and pathologize every day life, on the dominant professional discourse, and
on the codes of schools and day care institutions. Based on this criticism an including
perspective is offered, building on the establishment of communities reaching
outside the school, on a preferred professionalism based on what hasn’t yet been
developed, and on its implementation in educational practice. – Jørn Nielsen.
Berliner, Peter & Soberón; Elena de Casas. (at the University of Aarhus and Lecturer
at Universidad Cuauhtemuc, Mexico). Inclusion in Changing Communities.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 3, 289 – 295. – Inclusion is
developed through systems that allow participation in communities, that create well
being and aspirations of growth. These communities have definite distinctive marks
which we are in a process of describing and thereafter striving to further. It is in the
interaction between people in a large system – with many participating over- and
underlying subsystems – that the possibility of inclusion is found. Inclusion is built
into social systems that not only talk about but also practice ways to be together that
good groups are created. Peter Berliner og Elena de Casas Soberón.