|Abstract - 48. årgang 2
Hjerrild, Svend (Psychologist in Næstved).
Confidence and Confidentiality.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol 48, 2, 65-72. – Psychologists are being involved much more in social and legal areas of municipal administration than earlier. Clients expect care, empathy, and understanding from their psychologist, whose function, however, may be more comprehensive; e.g. gathering information about the client to be used as control and in decision making. The main instrument for all psychologists is the journal, which serves several purposes: it registers and documents all observations and decisions made. The journal should be kept in a way that protects the confidentiality of the client, it should safeguard his/her legal rights, it must be accessible to public control, and the client also has right of access. Several kinds of conflict may arise between e.g. the rights of the municipality to impart information about a citizen between different departments of administration and the rights of the client. One example might be the psychologist’s obligation to deliver confidential notes from therapeutical sessions to be used in decision making abt. unemployment measures or insurance matters. Such notes might easily be harmful to the client. There is a risk that psychologists keep “double” journals. It should instead be considered whether our laws might need to be changed. – Bjørn Glæsel
Bøttcher, Louise & Dammeyer, Jesper (Lecturer at The Danish University School; psychologist at The University of Copenhagen).
“Let Us Examine the Possibilities” – Handicap Psychology in a Dialectic Perspective.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 2, 73-86. - Our conceptual understanding of disability frames how we act vis a vis individuals with disabilities. In the article, we discuss four different theoretical perspectives of disability; A biological, a functionalistic, a humanistic and a cultural, before we present the dialectical cultural-historical approach as a fifth and alternative perspective. Vygotsky stated that a disability emerges from the incongruence between the psychological development of a person and the structure of cultural forms, the person is living in. This cultural-historical approach to disability differs from traditional “social models” of disability by incorporating a dialectical and developmental dimension. The developmental dimension allows analyses of biological and social constraints on social participation in culturally mediated practices and how participation at one time feedback on future developmental possibilities of the person with a disability. Professionals can aim their work towards decreasing the incongruence between the person with a disability and the practice. Drawing on a research project at a special school for children with pervasive motor and learning impairments, we exemplify how professionals might enable communicational development of children with severe cerebral palsy through a focus on how particular children participate in the activities in the practice. We conclude that from a dialectical point of view, both disability and the concept of inclusion are best understood in relation to the concrete practices, where the incongruence emerges and evolves. – Louise Bøttcher og Jesper Dammeyer.
Jørgensen, Gitte (Psychologist at the Skovgården Community Home).
Walking Along Neuroaffective Bridges While they are being Built.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol. 48, 2, 87-102. – Neuroaffective developmental psychology is a theoretical combination of neuroscience and developmental psychology, developed by Susan Hart. This article introduces the implementation of the theory in practice, working with children diagnosed with attachment disorders. We should be aware of the development of the brain and of the consequences of severe neglect. Examples of methods are presented, describing how to intervene at the appropriate developmental level. – Gitte Jørgensen
Hviid, Pernille & Lima, Christian (Lecturer at The University of Copenhagen, Psychologist, partner in Hr7, a consulting agency).
Education, Evaluation, and Unease of Evaluation.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 2, 103-120. - This paper investigates links between different layers in the organization of the implementation of a ministerial executive order for children’s learning in daycare institutions. Observations, interviews and analyses of documents were carried out in the layers of the organization of one municipality.The layers studied ranged from local policy, administration and consultancy of the specific institutions, to pedagogue’s planning- and evaluation meetings and the everyday interactions in kindergartens and nursery-care activities, where children participated. Our analysis showed that the organization as a whole presented itself to be working according to the logic of a linear hierarchal structure, where knowledge was translated in a one to one manner between the different layers of the organization, either “top-down” as implementation, or “bottom-up”, as documentation and evaluation. However, the presentation of this ordered, well coordinated organizational machine depended heavily on persuasion and felt obligations to perform as if the system was translating itself in a one to one way across the different layers. Our analysis shows that the pattern of management created an organizational configuration and dynamic close to Goffman’s dramaturgical theatre, in which social actors work to stage their actions and their self-presentations, as individual pedagogues, institutions or administrations, in manners that fit the overall discourse of the expected. – Pernille Hviid og Christian Lima.
Melby – Lervåg, Monica (Lecturer at The Institute of Special Education, Norway).
Cognitive Markers of Dyslexia and Specific Linguistic Difficulties.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, 2011, Vol.48, 2, 121-146. – Dyslexia and SLD (Specific Linguistic Difficulties) are normally diagnosed by their discrepancies with IQ and/or criteria of exclusion. An alternative is the use of cognitive markers to separate children with the problem from those without it. This article examines the quality of some of these markers by presenting studies comparing results. The best markers of dyslexia were phonological awareness and naming speed. Longitudinal studies show that problems with phon. aw. may lead to decoding problems later on. Similar findings, although slighter, connect naming speed with phon. aw. As for SLD, nonword repetition and memory of sentences are valid cognitive markers. It is, however, not clear, whether the findings mirror causes of or consequences of SLD. It is concluded that the use of cognitive markers might be a useful tool, especially when examining bi-lingual children. – Monica Melby-Lervåg