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DE SENESTE NUMRE » 44.årgang - 2007 » 44.årgang nr.5-6 November 2007 Ledelse under forandring
 
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Mads Hermansen

Ledelse

I artiklen tager jeg udgangspunkt i et frustrationsforhold og prøver positivt at refomulere det som bud på kompetencer i forhold til det at lede: Jeg opregner følgende: At ville styring og involveringen. At være voksen. At kunne idealisere. Derefter går jeg over til at bestemme kvalifikationerne: Kundskaber om feltet. Kompetence til at lede læring og udvikling. Selvrefleksivitet.Evne til at styre fora kommunikativt. Afslutnigvis opstiller jeg en række hypoteser på hvordan stil og træk interagerer med lederroller.

Hermansen, Mads (Professor at Copenhagen Business School). Leadership. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 365-380. – In Denmark four teaching styles are typically recognized, when teachers are viewed as: fiery souls, guardians of traditions, problem solvers, and harmonious teachers. Two variables are extracted: problem solving and involvement. A good leader must be able to mediate between his attention towards the individual position of the teachers and their collective attention towards their function as teachers. Three demands of qualifications of leadership are presented: field knowledge, self reflectivity, communication – reflection – decision making. The author then presents The Big Five and Thinking Styles (Sternberg). The higher BF-scores, the better leadership (Neuroticism the opposite). Presenting the 13 Sternberg categories, it is hypothesized that leadership correlates positively with legislative, hierarchical/oligarchic, global, internal/external and liberal. These hypotheses may easily be tested, using the categories presented.
Kit Sanne Nielsen

Ledelse gennem forandringer. Eller: Kunsten at mobilisere andre til at virke for fælles ambitioner

I dette indlæg vil der primært blive fokuseret på de særlige forhold i forbindelse med forandringsledelse af Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning. Der er nogle specifikke hensyn at tage i ledelse, når større forandringer er i gang. Artiklen konkretiserer disse specifikke forhold og giver nogle anvisninger på vigtige ledelseshandlinger for ledere af PPR.

Nielsen; Kit, Sanne (Specialized psychologist in organizational psychology). Leadership Through Change. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 381-392. – Recent changes within public services comprising a reduction of the number of Danish municipalities from 275 to 98 put great demands to public leaders. How do leaders of e.g. school psychological offices balance between innovation – staff development – the expert role – strategy making? Five important questions are posed: 1. To whom should I be loyal? 2. Am I still an expert? 3. Can I deal with continuous change? 4. Am I trustworthy? 5. Am I just a chess piece, and do I make a difference? Changes are met in different ways: apathy – protest – unwilling obedience – formal obedience – genuine acceptance – enrolment – dedication. The processes of change has four stages: chock – withdrawal – realization and adaptation – reconstruction. Through externalization as in valid narratives it is possible to guide the staff through their crises. In a complex municipal world, the school psychological office might be thought of as a big-band, in which its director facilitates improvisation from its members within a musical framework.
Steen Hildebrandt

Ledelse i vidensamfundet

Denne artikel giver en generel introduktion til ledelse. Den indeholder indledningsvist nogle bemærkninger om emner som social intelligens, ledelse og sundhed, det højeste fremtidige potentiale og personbestemt ledelse, og herefter behandler artiklen en række specifikke ledelsesbegreber og -temaer.

Hildebrandt, Steen (Professor at the Århus Business School). Leadership in the Learned Society. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 393-405 – This article presents a general introduction to leadership. Some remarks are made on social intelligence, leadership and health, the ultimate future potential, and personality dependent leadership. Leadership is about setting goals, obtaining results together with others. Direction is essential e.g. from the dictator, the managing director, or the school head. The demands of leadership within public service came as a surprise, but this is due to the fact, that no distinction has been made earlier between administration and leadership. Leadership is also about change and choices between alternatives. In the informal organization the constituents are thoughts, beliefs, and emotions. The good leader manages to fill the gap between rules and administration on one hand and personal stance, evaluation, action, and intuition on the other. The important thing is to define the principles and rules, that guide decision making.
Niels Peter Rygård

PPR-lederes vilkår i de nye kommuner og regioner

Baseret på erfaring med organisationsudvikling funderer forfatteren over PPR lederens vilkår og de forskellige styringsformer lederen må praktisere for at lykkes. Fokus er især på hvilke ledelsesformer der er egnede til de mange forskellige opgavetyper i PPR regi, og den dobbelte position som leder af faglighed og leder i en stadigt mere ideologistyret organisation.

Rygård; Niels, Peter (Consultant in development of organizations). The Conditions for Chief Educational Psychologists in the New Municipalities and Regions. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 406-410. – Three central problem areas have emerged, following the municipal reconstruction: the relationship between the school psychological office and local administration, the many different types of tasks, and the leadership of many new employees from different places. Three different ideologies of leadership are presented: »The McDonald Model«, which results in a »handbook« of certain procedures. It gives answers to the question, how do we simplify our work? »The Artisan Model«, used to solve more unforeseeable questions. It answers the question: What angles should be examined before we act? »The Self-guiding Team Model« is more internationally inspired and answers the question, how do everyone contribute to solve the problem? All three models have their advantages and drawbacks. What is needed is a thorough local analysis making the problems explicit, resulting in decisions about how and when the different models should be applied.
Allan Holmgren

Dømt til ledelse – magt, afmagt og frihed

Der ofres mere og opmærksomhed på ledelse. Regeringen har som en del af trepartsaftalen besluttet, at alle offentlige ledere skal have en diplomuddannelse i ledelse. Ledelse lader til at være blevet et problem siden alle ledere skal efteruddannes. Hvordan skal den enkelte leder dog finde vej i den måde, der tales om ledelse på? Hvad er problemet? Dette kapitel præsenterer et poststrukturalistisk perspektiv på ledelse med den konklusion at ledelse altid må gå galt og ramme ved siden af. Ledelse er som børneopdragelse: Der er ingen generelle svar som passer på de konkrete problemer den enkelte leder står over får. Jo mere teori, jo flere modeller og jo mere der loves, jo længere væk kommer man fra dagligdagen som den opleves af ledere. Men artiklen har ikke et pessimistisk budskab. Tværtimod. Det er altid muligt at gøre noget, for magten og forventninger er baseret på frihed til at etablere modmagt, til at praktisere civil ulydighed, til at etablere lommer af frihed fra den moderne magts normer.

Holmgren, Allan (Director of the DISPUK Training Organization and professor of coaching at The University of Copenhagen). Doomed to Leadership – Power, Impotence and Freedom. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 411-430. – There is an increased focus on leadership. The government has decided that all leaders within public service must obtain a diploma in leadership. Leadership seems to have become a problem since all leaders must receive further training. How is it possible for the individual leader to find his way in the ways leadership are discussed? What is the problem? This article presents a post structuralistic perspective of leadership, concluding that all leadership is doomed to fail completely. Leadership is like child rearing: no general answers fit the leader’s concrete problems. The more theory, the more models, the more promises, the further one gets away from the everyday situation as it is perceived by leaders. But the article does not contain a pessimistic message. On the contrary. It is always possible to do something, because power and expectations are based on liberty to establish counter power, to practice civil disobedience, to establish pockets of freedom from the norms of modern power.
Nadja U. Prætorius

Moderne management og moderne grandiositet. Om organisationsrelevant selvudvikling,fremmedgørelse og den uniformerede individualisme1

Artiklens perspektiv er at sandsynliggøre, at arbejdsrelaterede belastningsfaktorer kan udvirke oplevelse af fremmedgørelse, som på sin side kan forårsage invaliderende stress belastningsreaktioner. Alle de i artiklen nævnte belastningsfaktorer rummer et element af fremmedgørelse, hvad enten det er de enkleste som f.eks. overlæsning af arbejde, eller det det drejer sig om evalueringssystemers dekonstruktion af det autentiske selvværd og identitetsoplevelse og den efterfølgende ydrestyrede konstruktion af en situationsbetinget selv – og omverdensopfattelse, der danner udgangspunkt for dannelsen af det, jeg har valgt at kalde: konform og uniformeret individualisme Artiklen munder ud i en opfordring til, at storhedsforestillinger om ledelsens uendelige muligheder for at skabe ekspansion og resultatopnåelse – ja at kun fantasien og vor italesættelse af virkeligheden sætter grænser – bliver gjort til genstand for kvalificeret kritik og selvkritik blandt teoretikerne, de professionelle eksperter og coaches, samt udøverne af moderne arbejdsorganisation og ledelse.

Prætorius; Nina, U. (Specialized clinical psychologist, therapist and supervisor). Modern Management and Modern Grandiosity. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 431-444. – The perspective is to render it plausible that work related load factors may procure an experience of alienation, which in its way may cause invalidating stress reactions. All load factors contain an element of alienation, whether it may be simple ones like work overload or it is about the deconstruction of the evaluation systems of authentic self-confidence and experience of identity and the following other-directed construction of a self, dependent on situations – and perceptions of the outer world, creating the departure point for the establishing of what I choose to call conformal and uniform individualism. The article leads into an invitation to exert qualified criticism and self criticism amongst theoreticians, professional experts, and coaches as well as practitioners within modern organization of work and leadership of delusions of grandiosity about the endless possibilities of leaders to create expansion and of obtaining goals – yes: that only our fantasy and our discourses on reality puts limits.
Henning Strand

Dilemmaer og paradokser i PPR-ledelse

I perioder med hurtige og gennemgribende forandringer, kommer ledelse for alvor på dagsordenen og skal vise sin berettigelse. Da der sker store forandringer på arbejdsmarkedet i disse år er det derfor ikke overraskende, at der for tiden er meget fokus på ledelse – også på ledelse af offentlige institutioner. Med afsæt i de kommunale strukturforandringer præsenteres generelle udviklingstendenser, betingelser, dilemmaer og paradokser i offentlig ledelse, med særligt fokus på ledelse i en PPR-kontekst..

Strand, Henning (Chief school psychologist in Herlev). Dilemmas and Paradoxes in Educational Psychology. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 445-468. – A recent Danish reconstruction of our municipal structure has led to many changes and demands, also in school psychology. The tasks of school psychologists and the many different expectations from users and other institutions makes it very important to analyze and discuss the situation. David Campbell’s »semantic polarities« are introduced as a means to analyses: stability vs. change puts demands on leaders to balance in an optimal way. Control vs. trust and the derived positions between obedience and responsibility is another challenge. A widespread discrepancy between value-based leadership as proclaimed by the authorities, and detailed rules and guidelines, issued by these as well is an example. There is an ongoing conflict between »serving the authorities« and being loyal to your employees. The leader must react in an calculated way towards the many very different preferences and needs, he is met with; must meet the parties where they are, and at the same time preserve his own integrity and ethics and keep focus on the overall goals.
Ole V. Rasmussen

Ledelse af PPR i bevægelse – ledelse af viden i praksis

PPR er i bevægelse. Rundt om medarbejdere og ledere sker der ting og sager der presser organisation og individer mod udvikling og forandring. Men kan deltagerne forandre sig uden at have deres væsen og »eksistenskraft« med sig. At finde sig selv, skabe sig selv og være med til at skabe sin organisation i relation til betingelser, muligheder og pres omkring én, er nødvendige bevægelser der kræver retning og: – ledelse. Men hvad drejer professioner og organisationers liv sig egentlig om: Viden, faglighed er den vigtigste kraft i de professionelles dagligdag i de organisationer de deltager i. Viden og organisation er to sider af samme dag. Med dette udgangspunkt vil jeg først se på hvad der særligt presser og udfordrer PPR i dag – og hvad de mulige bevægelser er herudfra. Det hele drejer sig om ledelse af viden.

Rasmussen; Ole, V. (Chief educational psychologist in Copenhagen). School Psychology on the Move. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 469-483. – School psychology is on the move. Around employees and leaders many things happen, putting pressure on the organization and its individuals towards development and change. But can participants change themselves without carrying along their nature and their power of existence? Finding yourself, creating yourself, and participating in creating your organization in relation to existing conditions, possibilities, and pressure around you are necessary moves that demand direction: – and leadership. But what is the life of professions and organizations really about? Knowledge, professionalism are the most important issues in the professional everyday life in their organizations. Knowledge and organization are two aspects of the same issue. Based on this, the author looks at the specific challenges and pressures on school psychology today – and the possible moves that might be made. It is all about leadership of knowledge.
Bjarne Nielsen

Ledelse af Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning

I dette indlæg vil der primært blive fokuseret på de særlige forhold i forbindelse med ledelse af Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning. Det vil samtidig også være nogle af de faglige forhold, der giver fornøden argumentation til at kræve, at lederen af PPR – ud over de generelle ledelsesmæssige kvalifikationer – har en uddannelse som psykolog. De mere almene og generelle krav til ledelse – herunder personaleledelse – der også er gældende for PPRs leder, er mere udførligt beskrevet i øvrige artikler i dette temanummer.

Nielsen, Bjarne (Chief educational psychologist and administrator of special support in Frederikssund). Leadership of School Psychology. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 484-494. – School legislation demands that children with special needs are offered special education. It also demands that each child, prior to sp.ed., is seen by a school psychologist or another employee at the s.p. office. While no specific rules as to size of a s.p. office exist, the Ministry of Education has, however, recommended in a report, that such offices should be organized as separate and visible entities, and that its leaders have a pedagogical psychological background. Educational psychology must deal with both sides of relationships: the individual child and his environment – in school and at home. A recent administrative change has rendered school psychology to be centralized: much fewer, but considerably larger offices. This makes it necessary and important to analyze all aspects of the services and to upgrade the quality of these.
Ole Hansen og Ulla Senger

Behov for ny efteruddannelse til ledere af pædagogisk-psykologiske rådgivninger

Lederne af de nye Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivninger (PPR) står over for en række udfordringer. Men ledergruppen er overset på efter- og videreuddannelsesområdet. Der findes stort set ingen kvalificerede efteruddannelser målrettet PPR-lederne og de særlige problemstillinger, de møder i hverdagen. Derfor har vi udarbejdet en ramme for en efteruddannelse, som bl.a. skal bidrage til at opbygge et fælles ledelsesteoretisk fundament for PPR-lederne.

Hansen, Ole & Sender, Ulla (Project leader and lecturer at the University College of Northern Jutland). The Need of Supplementary Training of Leaders of the School Psychological Offices. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 495-500. – Due to changes in the municipal structure and the new demands of administrative skills. Leaders of school psychology need upgrading. The authors present a plan for a new in-service training program with these goals: a theoretical, holistic understanding of their organizations and their networks, ability to analyze the surroundings, expounding and setting of overall goals and strategies, independent goal and strategy planning of own institution, ability to lead and motivate employees, conscious and active planning of necessary prerequisites for own position, tasks, and developmental space. The program is expected to have a duration of two years as a part time study.
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