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Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
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DE SENESTE NUMRE » 44.årgang - 2007 » 44.årgang nr.3 August 2007 Inkluderende pædagogik i Norden
 
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Susan Tetler

Forord til temanummeret

Dette temanummer er skrevet af deltagerne i Nordplus-netværket »Inkluderende pædagogik i Norden«. Netværket blev etableret i 2004/2005 og har til formål at stimulere til videreudvikling af inkluderende pædagogik som studiefag og som forskningsfelt. I udgangspunktet bestod opgaven i at udarbejde studiemoduler i inkluderende pædagogik med klar forankring i en nordisk uddannelsespolitisk og kulturel kontekst og i deltagernes specifikke kompetencer og erfaringer. Målsætningen var, at disse moduler skulle indarbejdes i masterprogrammer i specialpædagogik ved de respektive samarbejdsinstitutioner (Universitetet i Stavanger, Göteborgs Universitet, Islands Pædagogiske Universitet og Danmarks Pædagogiske Uni­versitet).

Tetler, Susan (Lecturer at The Danish University of Education). Inclusive Teaching in the Nordic Countries. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 199-201. – In this introductory article, the author presents the three following articles (by Bjarnason & Persson; Klasson & Marinosson; Ohna & Tetler, all part of a network, “Inclusive Teaching in the Nordic Countries”. The network was established in 2004, its goal being to further research in inclusion. Furthermore the results should be implemented in master degree studies of special education at the universities of Stavanger, Göteborg, Iceland, and Denmark.
Dóra S. Bjarnason og Bengt Persson

Inkludering i de nordiska utbildningssystemen – en sociohistorisk bakgrund

I detta inledande kapitel är vår avsikt att belysa den historiska utvecklingen mot ett allt mer inkluderande synsätt i de fyra nordiska länder som vi här behandlar – Danmark, Island, Sverige och Norge1. Att vi väljer begreppet sociohistorisk har att göra med att vi därmed särskilt vill betona de sociala eller samhällsanknutna aspekterna av strävan efter ett mer inkluderande synsätt.

Bjarnason, S., Dora & Persson, Bengt (Professor of sociology and handicap studies at The Educational University of Reykjavik and professor of special education at the universities of Agder and Borås). Inclusion in the Nordic Educational Systems – a Socio-historical Background. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 202-224. – While in Denmark special classes were to be found from abt. 1900, it wasn´t until the School Act of 1937 that sp.ed. was officially instigated. From abt. 1970 special classes were gradually exchanged by integrated sp.ed. A new act in 2005 decided that much more effort should be put on normal education, and that children with special needs ought to be taught in normal classes, at times in groups and possibly after regular school hours. In Iceland a school act from 1974 instigated the principles of normalization and integration, and in 1976 it was emphasized that all pupils should receive relevant teaching together with children without special needs of the same age group. However, the number of special classes increased. Inclusion is emphasized, but not easily implemented. In Norway a school act of 1955 demanded that pupils with special needs were to be given sp.ed. without exception. The following years saw a large growth of special schools. Reflecting the Salamanca Declaration, the inclusive school was introduced in 1997. There is, however, a long way to go since the municipalities are slow to change their school systems, and state control is scarce. In Sweden, the so called Visby Compromise from 1960 decided that pupils with special needs were to receive relevant sp.ed. A school act from 1962 built on integrative principles, but allowed in fact a continous use of special classes. There is an ongoing debate on sp.ed. even if Sweden does support the international movement towards inclusion.
Jan-Åke Klasson

Kritiskt perspektiv och normativ argumentation

I denna artikel problematiseras den spänning som uppstår i mötet mellan utbildningspolitik som bygger på inkluderande verksamhet som princip och en praktik som inte sällan är segregerande. Detta skulle kunna uttryckas som en diskrepans mellan en normativ argumentation och en traditionens och realitetens praktik. Men även andra diskrepanser kan föreligga, t.ex. att ideologiskt grundad argumentation på olika nivåer inte är i fas med varandra. Den sistnämnda spänningen är särskilt tydlig i den kritik som riktats mot specialpedagog-utbildningarna i Sverige i Högskoleverkets nationella utvärdering 2006, varför detta spänningsfält avslutningsvis i artikeln tas som utgångspunkt för en kritisk reflektion.

Klasson, Jan-Åke (Lecturer at The university of Göteborg). Critical Perspective and Normative Argumentation. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 225-235. – In this article the tension between an educational policy, building on inclusion, and a quite often segregating practice is problematized. This could be called a discrepancy between a normative argumentation and a practice of tradition and reality. Other discrepancies may also be found; e.g. that ideological arguments at different levels are in conflict. This kind of tension is clearly visible in the criticism directed at the training of special teachers in Sweden in a national survey in 2006. This is why this area is dealt with in some detail.
Gretar Marinosson, Stein Erik Ohna & Susan Tetler

Delagtighedens pædagogik

Nordisk skolepolitik er baseret på principper om lighed og demokrati. Angiveligt refererer dette til politik såvel som til praksis. Det indebærer dog ikke, at alle elevers aktive deltagelse i alle aktiviteter vedrørende skolen – uafhængig af deres sociale baggrund – betragtes som en nødvendig forudsætning for disse princippers virkning; snarere at muligheden for en sådan deltagelse er et »must«. Dette kan siges at være essensen af det offentlige skolesystem i Norden: det er et ideal snarere end en realitet i praksis – og i praksis kommer disse intentioner ofte til kort, viser flere nordiske undersøgelser.

Marinosson, Gretar; Ohne, Erik, Stein; Tetler, Susan (Professor at The University of Education in Reykjavik; professor at The University of Stavanger; lecturer at The Danish University of Education). The Pedagogy of Participation. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2007, Vol. 44, 236-263. – A detailed study of 16 Nordic research reports is used to distinguish between social participation and learning participation. As shown in fig. 1 (p. 245) a triangular relationship exists betw. pupil, task at hand, and context. A study by Johnson & Johnson (In Göransson, 2004) specifies a number of important dimensions for groups, including children with special needs. 1. Does the group have a common goal ?2. Do the pupils depend on sharing resources? 3. A definition of different roles for all. 4. All share the tasks. 5. Appreciation is given to all. Much more research is needed, dealing with participation in task-solving, exclusive vs. inclusive processes, factors that hinder vs. promote active involvement, and studies of interpersonal processes. The research scope shoud be wide, encompassing etnographical studies, case studies, surveys, longitudinal studies, action research etc.
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