Søg titler, forfatter m.v.her:
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
Det faglige vindue for anvendt psykologi
DE SENESTE NUMRE » 43.årgang - 2006 » 43.årgang nr.4 September 2006
 
<< tilbage

Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen

De mest sårbare børn i velfærdssamfundet

Man må forudse, at der de kommende årtier vil ske en demografisk ændring af den aldersmæssige sammensætning i de rige landes befolkninger. Denne udvikling kan betyde en øget konkurrence om de begrænsede ressourcer (Heller, 2003). I denne politiske prioriteringsproces vil forskellige velfærdspolitiske foranstaltninger blive udsat for et pres. Og her vil de politisk svagere grupper have sværere ved at sætte den politiske dagsorden. Velfærdssamfundets legitimitet skal jo blandt andet stå sin prøve, når man skal finde løsninger til at tage vare på de mest udsatte og svageste individer. Her tænkes på handicappede, åndssvage, hjemløse, psykisk syge og de ældre, der ikke kan klare sig selv. Børn og unge, der udsættes for mishandling og vanrøgt, er et eksempel på en sådan magtesløs gruppe.

Chistoffersen, Mogens Nygaard (Senior researcher at the National Institute of Social Research). The Most Vulnerable Children of the Welfare Society. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 299-308. –The anticipated changes in age distribution in the developed parts of the world may well lead to competition within the countries about resources. The legitimacy of welfare societies should be measured by their capacity to help the weakest members of the society. Among these are children who are maltreated and neglected. Analysis of the extent of maltreatment etc. and of its determinants is complicated. Recent British research shows that 6% of a large group of youngsters reported to have been subjected to psychological mistreatment in their childhood, 7% to physical abuse, and 1% to sexual misuse. Danish research points to a number of serious problems about the effects of solutions e.g. placement in institutions or foster homes. A UNICEF report places Denmark in a not very pleasant position in a statistic about children dying from maltreatment or neglect. It is a serious problem that Denmark a.o. has chosen the policy of the ostrich: put your head in the sand. No systematic registration of child abuse.
Niels Egelund

Skolestørrelser og PISA-resultater

Skolestørrelsens betydning har været i fokus mange år. Skoleloven af 1937 betød et afgørende brud med små ikke-årgangsdelte skoler, om end intentionerne på grund af anden verdenskrig først slog igennem fra midten af 1950’erne. Dengang var der ca. 5.500 skoler i Danmark. I dag er antallet af folkeskoler ca. 1.700, og strukturreformen vil over de næste år efter al sandsynlighed betyde yderligere centraliseringer. Spørgsmålet om skolestørrelsers betydning har derfor fornyet aktualiet.

Egelund, Niels (Professor at the Danish University of Education). School Size and PISA-Results. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 309-314. – The relationship between school size and pupil outcome has been studied and discussed for decades. In Denmark the discussion has been renewed because the number of schools has fallen from about 5,500 in the 1950’ies to about 1,700, and recent restructuring in Denmark will probably lead to even fewer, but larger schools. Analyzing the PISA investigation, the achievements of about 3,000 16-year old pupils in math are presented. As shown, the best results are found in larger schools, and the weakest in smaller schools. Performing a linear stepwise, multiple, regression analysis it is shown, that socio-economical background of the pupils explains 5.3% of the variation, sex 0.6%, school size 0.5%, bilingualism 0.2% – all findings are significant at the 0.001 level. A number of possible explanations of the small, but significant favour of larger schools are presented: more teachers offer possibilities of higher quality of using each teacher’s qualifications, and of teamwork e.g.
Palle Bendsen

»No Child Left Behind« – sætter teknologien en ny pædagogisk dagsorden – kan vi lære noget af USA ?

Det amerikanske uddannelsessystem er stort – mega stort, hvorfor det er svært at svare på overskriftens spørgsmål, når det drejer sig om undervisningen af mere end 50 millioner elever. Det er næppe muligt at pege på en generel trend i amerikansk pædagogik. Men måske er der inspiration i USA’s progressive kombination af pædagogisk og teknologisk nytænkning, som det kommer til udtryk i reformprogrammet: »No Child Left Behind«.

Bendsen, Palle (Lecturer at KDAS teacher training college). »No Child Left Behind«. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 315-320. –Danish teaching has for many years been and is still being inspired by German didactics and British and American educational developments – from e.g. John Dewey to Howard Gardner, Rita Dunn, Seymour Papert, and Barbara Reider. The reform program »No Child Left Behind« is already having its impact in this country due to its goals/principles: more pupil responsibility, focusing on what works, reducing bureaucracy, more flexibility, more power to the parents. It is very interesting to follow the progress of this program in USA and to see whether »The quality of secondary education will improve and ensure that every student graduates from high school prepared to enter college or the workforce with the skills needed to succeed« in 2014.
Pia Ryde

Medfødt toxoplasmose

Beskrivelse af følgevirkninger samt en dansk undersøgelse med foreløbige resultater af kognitiv undersøgelse

Ryde, Pia (Psychologist at the Pediatric Unit of the Hospital of Hillerød). Congenital Toxoplasmosis. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 321-332. –In Denmark the incidence of C.T. is 0.13-0.33% or between 80 and 200 children yearly. Research by Langset (1981), Wallon (2004), Wilson (1980), and McLeod (2000) shows that C.T. may cause mental retardation in varying degrees, and that sufficient treatment secures a better, cognitive function. A Danish follow-up project of 27 diagnosed children and a control group comprised a psychological evaluation, using the WISC-III. While the average test results are slightly lower in the C.T. group, none of the differences are significant. The children were tested at 6 and 10 years; it is proposed to follow-up with the WISC-III and the NEPSY (a neuro-psychological test), and the BRIEF behaviour rating inventory.
Søren Benedikt Pedersen og Jørgen Westermann

Samtalegrupper for børn med Aspergers syndrom

Baggrund: På børnepsykiatrisk afsnit, Roskilde Amtssygehus Fjorden, har vi gennem nogle år haft en samtalegruppe for børn med Asperger syndrom. Hver gruppesession har bestået af: A) En struktureret samtalerunde hvor vi, med udgangspunkt i børnenes egne oplevelser, har støttet børnene i at lytte til og kommenterer hinandens oplevelser. B) En lege- og aktivitetsrunde, hvor vi bl.a. har lavet eventyr-rollespil. Begge aktiviteter kræver deltagelse i gensidigt socialt samspil, indlevelse og forestillingsevne. Børnene er således blevet udfordret på områder, hvor de, ifølge de diagnostiske kriterier for Aspergers syndrom, har store vanskeligheder. Formålet med artikel er at belyse og diskutere betydningen af gruppetilbud til børn med Aspergers syndrom. Metode: Triangulering. Emnet belyses gennem tre forskellige perspektiver. 1) Evidensbaseret forskningslitteratur. 2) Egne kliniske erfaringer. 3) Kvalitative interviews med gruppedeltagere og deres forældre. Konklusion: Gruppetilbud til børn med Aspergers syndrom er vigtige og betydningsfulde, fordi et vellykket gruppeforløb skaber øget selvindsigt, styrke barnets sociale kompetence og er med til at forebygge sekundære adfærds- og emotionelle vanskeligheder. Perspektivering: I artiklen gives konkrete anvisning til, hvordan et gruppeforløb kan etableres og gennemføres i håb om, at artiklen vil inspirere andre til at etablere lignende grupper. Målgruppe: Artiklen henvender sig primært til psykologer i PPR og børnepsykiatrien samt til lærere og pædagoger, der arbejder med børn, der har en autismespektrumforstyrrelse.

Pedersen, Søren Benedikt & Westermann, Jørgen (Psychologists at the Child Psychiatric Unit, Fjorden at the County Hospital of Roskilde). Discussion Groups for Children with Asperger’s Syndrome. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 333-343. –A discussion group for children with A.S. has existed for some years. Each session comprises a conversation turn concerning good and bad experiences supported by the psychologists; and play and activities e.g. role-play, requiring empathy and social skills. Using a triangular approach of three perspectives (research literature, own experiences, and qualitative interviews with the children) their conclusions are: Group activities for A.S. children are important and meaningful, because they create more self-insight, they facilitate social skills, and they minimize the risks of secondary behavioural and emotional difficulties. It is suggested that similar groups should be established elsewhere.
Torunn Tinnesand

PP-tjenesten som innovatør i skoler

Lillegården kompetansesenter er et statlig spesialpedagogisk kompetansesenter, som har et særlig ansvar knyttet til utvikling, veiledning og formidling av arbeid med læringsmiljø i grunnopplæringen. Ett av senterets mandat fra Utdanningsdirektoratet er ”å bidra til å styrke PP-tjenestens rolle som en innovativ samarbeidspartner i grunnopplæringen.” Denne artikkelen tar for seg ulike måter å fylle dette mandatet på.

Tinnesand, Torunn (Psychologist at the Lillegården Competence Center, Norway). School Psychologists as School Innovators. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 344-348. –In Norway the school psychological offices are required by legislation to assist schools with their development of competence and organization. The Lillegården Center has been required to implement the LP-model in the schools (Learning environment and pedagogical analyses). So far it has been tried out in 14 schools in 3 municipalities with very good results. The center has already involved school psychological offices in this work and is planning further involvement. The school psychologists are important as counsellors and »whips« in the process
Jette Lentz

Fælles Indsats

PPR er centralt placeret i udviklingen af ny praksis til gavn for børn med særlige behov

Lentz, Jette (School psychologist and deputy chief psychologist in the School Psychological Office of Copenhagen, the South District). Common Effort. Psykologisk-Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 349-357. –International discussions of the inclusive school and decisions made in the school system in Copenhagen inspired this school psychological unit to launch a project at a large school in Copenhagen, the Peder Lykke School. The project was labelled »Common Effort« and was inspired by the Marlborough approach in London. The goal of the project is cooperation between parents, teachers and school psychologists in order to support the deviant child to change his behaviour. It implies hat parents participate in the teaching for two or more forenoons a week for 8 weeks. An external evaluation has been performed, pinpointing very positive effects. In the next period, similar projects will be established, comprising, however, also the surrounding factors: clubs, youth centres etc.
Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift | Havrevænget 9 | 4681 Herfølge | Tlf.: 23600055 | Salg tlf.: 45460050