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Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
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DE SENESTE NUMRE » 43.årgang - 2006 » 43.årgang nr.3 Juni 2006
 
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Thomas Ziehe

Indlæringskultur, de unges mentalitetsskifte og relativeringen af deres egen verden

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Ziehe, Thomas (Professor of Pedagogy at the University of Hannover). Learning Culture ,Change of Mentality of Youth, and the Relativation of their own World. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 239-245 – The well documented change of mentality of youth poses challenges for teaching. The teacher should become a guide in »strange sensations« and a safeguard of the teaching setting. A good example may be found in the movie, »Dead Poets’ Society«. In the teaching process the teacher should encompass the pupils’ needs of pride and their narcissistic vulnerability towards infringement and condescension. A final addition: naturally teachers do not form human beings. On the other hand the teacher’s good personal style is an important component in a successful relationship.
Poul Skov

Evalueringskultur i uddannelse – set i en dansk sammenhæng

I denne artikel sammenfattes væsentlige dele af den nationale og internationale viden om evaluering og evalueringskultur i skolen med henblik på at sætte situationen i dansk skole i perspektiv. Indholdet i artiklen er sammenstillet ud fra det syn på evaluering, at evaluering skal kunne bruges som grundlag for udvikling og som støtte til elevernes læring (formativ evaluering). Summativ evaluering i form af fx eksamen eller afsluttende prøver behandles således ikke.

Skov, Poul (Head of the Department of Evaluation at the Danish University of Education). The Culture of Evaluation in Education . Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 246-260 – Citing recent reports from the OECD and the Danish Institute of Evaluation, several weaknesses of formative evaluation in Danish schools are found. Evaluation is not seen as an integrated part of the teaching, it does not encompass teachers’ and pupils’ views of the outcomes, it is not an ongoing process, it is not systematically executed, it does not function as a platform for feed-back to pupils and parents, it does not support the cooperation between pupil and teacher about goals for learning and teaching. A number of reasons are thought to contribute to this situation such as lack of planning in the municipality and at the schools. On this basis it is recommended, that formative evaluation should be further developed in order to function as a stepping stone in the planning of teaching, teachers, schools and municipalities should be supported in their efforts to develop a culture of evaluation, the competence of teachers’ and heads’ use of evaluation should be upgraded, evaluation should be related directly to the aims of teaching, including academic and social as well as personal skills, pupils should be involved not just as objects to be evaluated, but as partners, suitable feed-back to pupils and teachers should be developed, evaluation should encompass pupil development and teaching, when evaluating pupils focus should also be on their learning potentials in the light of different teaching methods.
Kim Nørgaard Hansen

Perception i skolen

Med baggrund i J.J. Gibsons økologiske perceptionsteori argumenteres der i artiklen for, at de perceptuelle læringsprocesser skal have indflydelse på folkeskolens undervisning. Det diskuteres hvordan perception og kognition bidrager til læring og hvordan perception kan indgå i didaktiske overvejelser om undervisningens planlægning. Artiklen konkluderer, at perceptuelle processer kan ses som æstetiske læreprocesser, der bidrager til elevens alsidige (personlige) udvikling.

Hansen, Kim Nørgaard (Lecturer of psychology at the Haslev Teacher Training College). Perception in the School. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 261-278 – Based on J.J. Gibson’s ecological theory of perception, it is argued that the perceptual learning processes should influence teaching in primary school. It is discussed how perception and cognition contribute to learning, and how perception may become part of didactical considerations about the planning of teaching. It is concluded that perceptual processes may be seen as aesthetic learning processes, contributing to a versatile development of the pupil.
Karen Andreasen

Danske drenge i folkeskolen – masser af selvtillid eller lave forventninger til egne resultater?

Undersøgelser fra folkeskolen gennem det sidste årti har vist resultater, der har givet anledning til bekymring for danske drenge i skolealderen. De har også givet anledning til nogen undren. Drengene er i langt større risiko for at blive henvist til specialundervisning, de får kavere karakterer end pigerne i næsten alle fag, – på trods af, at PISA undersøgelsen viser højere score i fagene matematik og naturvidenskab –, og de tager efter skolen langt mindre uddannelse end pigerne gør. Samtidig har de en høj selvtillid i forhold til deres egne præstationer, højere end pigernes. Hvordan hænger det sammen? Det er udlægningen af dette, jeg i artiklen vil diskutere. Er der tale om en stor tillid til egne evner, eller kan det i stedet være udtryk for lave forventninger til egne præstationer? Og hvis det er tilfældet, hvad kan så være grunden til dette?

Andreasen, Karen (School psychologist). Danish Boys in the School. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 279-288 – Several findings from the last 10 years have started a growing concern for the situation of boys in the school. They are much more prone to receive special education, their grades are lower, in spite of the fact that they perform better than girls in math and science, and they are less well represented in further education. At the same time they get higher scores in self confidence in relation to own results compared to girls. Are they over confident, or do they have lower expectation of their own accomplishments? Possible explanations may be found in the differences between the sexes, biologically as well as socially. It is suggested that teaching might be developed as well in content as in methods to be more suited to the interests and preferred activities of boys. Segregation of the sexes in teaching is suggested as a supplement to normal, joint teaching.
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