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Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
Det faglige vindue for anvendt psykologi
DE SENESTE NUMRE » 43.årgang - 2006 » 43.årgang nr.2 April 2006
 
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Frans Ørsted Andersen

Normal- og specialpædagogik i Finland

Findes den finske PISA-succes i detaljen ? Det finske skolevæsen høster i disse år fornemme bedømmelser i internationale undersøgelser – ikke bare PISA, men også en række andre sammenlignende studier af nationale uddannelsessystemer, placerer Finland helt i top. Det er yderst interessant, for overordnet set er der mange fælles træk mellem dansk og finsk skolestruktur og pædagogisk tænkning – så jeg søger forklaringen på den finske folkeskolesucces i en række detaljer . Det er sådanne detaljer, som jeg prøver at afdække og beskrive nærmere i mit aktuelle ph.d-forskningsprojekt. Fx er der i den finske folkeskole en markant og velfungerende evalueringskultur, og der er generelt større fokus på fag-faglighed, samtidig med en mere effektiv specialundervisning, som f.eks. kommer til udtryk gennem nogle særlige støtteforanstaltninger ude i normalklasserne.

Andersen; Frans Ørsted (Lecturer at the Danish University of Education). Normal and Special Education in Finland. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 139-148. – While international reviews of the results of teaching places Denmark relatively low, Finland takes first place. In his PhD project the author analyses possible reasons for this marked difference between otherwise rather similar Scandinavian counties. Some preliminary findings are: Finland places much emphasis on evaluation and subject knowledge, and most special education takes the form of support in the classroom. The role of the teacher seems to be more authoritative than in Denmark.
Niels Egelund

Udsat skolestart – hvor tit sker det, og hvad er grunden?

Velfærdskommissionen har i sin rapport fra december 2005 peget på, at der sker et samfundsmæssigt tab ved, at en betydelig gruppe forældre synes at udsætte skolestarten for deres børn med et år, først og fremmest ved at lade dem gå et år ekstra i børnehave inden starten af børnehaveklassen. Undervisningsministeriets skolestartsudvalg, der blev nedsat den 7. december 2005, har også beskæftiget sig med dette, og som led i udvalgets arbejde har man ladet TNS Gallup foretaget en dataindsamling, der kunne belyse området grundigt. Analyserne af data fremlægges i denne artikel. Resultaterne er af værdi for PPR, idet udvalget foreslår, at den hidtidige relativt frie ordning med hensyn til skolestart afløses af en binding, hvor der kræves dispensation, hvis forældre ønsker deres børn skal starte tidligere eller senere end det år, hvor de fylder 6. PPR foreslås af udvalget som rådgivende instans ved dispensationsansøgning, hvis parterne forældre, pædagoger og skole ikke er enige.

Egelund, Niels (Professor at the Danish University of Education). Postponed Start of School – How Often and Why? Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 149-161. – Recent Danish investigations show that 17% of all school beginners, being at least a year older than the rest of the pupils. Their parents were asked about their reason for this. Their main reasons were concerns about the development of their children as to language, learning prerequisites and social function. The information and advice about their decision came mainly from kindergarten teachers. The Danish Primary Education Act demands that schools differentiate their teaching to encompass the individual differences between children, so there should be no reason to postpone school start. The decision of the parents is thought to be due to misunderstandings and to tendentious advice from kindergarten teachers. A new bill proposes, that all children start school at 6, and that deviations require dispensation. It has been proposed that the school psychologists should be asked to make decisions about dispensation.
Jan Niedersøe, Sigrid Madsbjerg, Jørgen Frost og Peer Møller Sørensen

Det tidlige sprogs betydning for læseindlæringen

Hensigten med denne artikel er at binde erfaringer og praksis fra »Den bornholmske 3-årsscreening« sammen med resultaterne fra en længdesnitsundersøgelse af årgang 1985 på Bornholm, hvor børnene efter screeningen blev fulgt med læseprøver frem til 9. klasse.

Niedersøe, Jan; Madsbjerg, Sigrid; Frost, Jørgen & Sørensen, Peer Møller (Reading specialists). The Implications of Early Language on Reading. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 162-171. – A large-scale survey of linguistic development of reading through the school years has been performed on the island of Bornholm, comprising all children born in 1985 (N=267). Significant correlations between reading performance in 9th grade and the following 5 test results from the age of 3 is documented: vocabulary, linguistic understanding, sentences, phonology, and interest in picture books. Although significant, the correlations (0.2-0.4) are thought to be low due to the fact, that all children with linguistic and/or reading problems have been given special education. The early identification of special educational needs and the effects of special education are thought to explain the fact that children on Bornholm perform better in reading tests than the average Danish child.
Tom Andersen

En av mange versjoner av Reflekterende Samtaler



Andersen, Tom (Professor at the University of Tromsø). One of Many Versions of Reflective Conversations. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 172-192. – Since 1985 the author has developed the reflective conversation as a therapeutic instrument. In this article he reflects on assumptions about reality, assumptions of human being, and assumptions of language and meaning. Drawing on many sources (p.187) he suggests that reality has 3 components: the visual but unmovable, the visual and movable, and the invisible but movable (e.g. a handshake). Human beings consist of questions and answers (Bakhtin) and the development of language (Vygotsky). He presents 10 theses about language and meaning: language comprises many expressions, we need the expressions to create meaning, the expressions are forerunners of meaning, meaning lies in the expression – not behind it, expressions are informative, expressions are followed by movement, movements are personal, all changes – but by laws (logos – Heraklit), talk is directed towards others – and to oneself, conversations between people with shared opinions are easy – if opinions differ, conversation breaks down.
Jan Tønnesvang & Poul Skaarup Jensen

Relationer der duer

– Praktisk pædagogik på selvpsykologisk grund

Tønnesvang, Jan & Jensen, Poul Skaarup (Lecturer at a Teacher Training College and pegagogical consultant). Relations that work. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 193-210. – Tønnesvang has elsewhere presented his theory of Self-Psychology. He suggests that life activities have four dimensions: technical life activities, socio-moral life activities, reflective life activities, phenomenological life activities. Based on his thinking, a developmental project was performed in a kindergarten in Jutland. The project focused on these questions: What is driving me now in my job? What is the most important, I have learned about myself so far? What are my dreams and ambitions? What have I brought with me? Who have I been looking up to? What am I especially good at? The staff divided into two groups, and discussions took place over a period of time. The project was evaluated by questionnaires etc. The results were that the staff found, that their work had become more qualified, and that they had become more attentive to their roles.
Jette Petersen

Myter og realiteter i forhold til sammensætning af elever i specialklasserne

Hvad stiller vi op med de adfærdsforstyrrede børn og unge?

Petersen, Jytte (School psychologist in Aarhus). Myth and Reality when Referring Pupils to Special Classes. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2006, Vol. 43, 211-220. – Drawing on experiences from the function of referring children to special classes, the author focuses on children with behaviour problems. They may have other diagnoses such as ADHD etc. and the problem is whether the child with behaviour difficulties profits better in homogenous than in mixed special classes. She recommends, that children with behaviour difficulties and no other diagnoses remain in normal classes with sufficient support, and that children who also have other diagnoses are placed in special classes for the ADHD children or other diagnostic categories, but preferably only one or two children with behaviour difficulties in each class.
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