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DE SENESTE NUMRE » 42.årgang - 2005 » 42.årgang nr.5-6 December 2005 Oplevelse af sammenhæng - et fælles ansvar
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Søren Hertz og Jørn Nielsen

Det dobbelte fokus- og ansvarsområde i relation til børn og unge i vanskeligheder

Nielsen, Jørn (clinical psychologist, PhD., private practice, Vejle) and Hertz, Søren (child- and adolescent psychiatrist, PsykCentrum, Hillerød). Double focus and responsibility in relation to children and adolescents in difficult positions. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 550-561. – In this initial article describing a double focus and responsibility the authors draw a picture of the challenges in connection with the theme Sense of Coherence. Many questions are raised, and many dilemmas in connection with the double focus invited and presented by children in marginalized positions. The double focus is presented as – on the one hand – the help and intervention to children, adolescents, families and professional and – on the other hand – commitment to awareness and work with the contexts around problem behaviour; i.e. the culture, language and ways of organising that has been preferred and established by public schools, institutions and society. The article invites at the same time the Educational psychology Agencies to take a position in relation to the double focus in meeting pupils, parents, schools and institutions.
Bjarne Nielsen

PPR og problemadfærd

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Nielsen, Bjarne (Chief Educational Psychologist, Head of children- and adolescent dept., Commune of Jægerspris, Chairman of the Danish Educational Psychologists Association). Educational Psychology Office and problem behaviour in public schools. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 562-582. – An individual oriented description of children’s problem behaviour based on a rational cause-effect understanding is not sufficient. Pupils are social actors, and the work with problem behaviour in public schools claims a systems analysis of maintaining factors, on which interventions can be planned. The educational psychologists must base their work on current research based knowledge of relevant strategies and methods for prevention and intervention of problem behaviour. The role of the psychologists will be as a process consultant – rather than a traditional specialist. The leader of the Educational Psychology Agency must provide a coherent intervention and must assure, that the Agency will be part of the total cooperative intervention towards problem behaviour in public schools in the commune. The leader must at the same time provide a relevant and qualified evaluation of the intervention according to approved standards.
Ole Steen Kristensen

In or out – integration af udsatte børn i skolens fællesskaber

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Kristensen, Ole Steen (PhD, lecturer at University of Aarhus, Institute of Psychology, head of Master education in Social Integration). In or out – the social integration of disadvantaged children in the communities of the school. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 583-594. – The aim of the article is to describe how inclusive communities may be developed in the school in cross-disciplinary teamwork. Three studies of social integration in the classroom are reviewed and it is concluded that marginalization depends on the community in the classroom and the interaction between pupils and between pupils and the teacher. An organizational analysis suggests that the development of an inclusive community in the school demands a comprehensive programme, which cannot be reduced to removing the barriers for social integration. Discourses inside and outside the school interchange and discourses maintain the ruling social order. A movement towards an inclusive school implies an intentional shift from social categorization of children and their social problems to appropriate planning of distinctive conditions for learning for the disadvantaged child. This shift calls for an improvement in the cooperation between the school and social systems in order to make changes in the discourse and an improvement in educational planning of the school and its discourses. The shift may be improved by a strategic use of research and developmental work.
Jørn Nielsen og Søren Hertz

Hvad er det, vi gør? – invitation til nye fællesskaber

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Nielsen, Jørn (clinical psychologist, PhD., private practice, Vejle) and Hertz, Søren (child- and adolescent psychiatrist, PsykCentrum, Hillerød). What is our practice? – Invitation to new partnerships. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 595-612. – In this article Jørn Nielsen and Søren Hertz describe their preferred practice. They focus on curiosity, dialogue in context and establishing development partnerships and joint actions. The article claims a pro-social intervention, where understanding problem behaviour is a guideline, and where problem behaviour also is seen as invitations to others in the wider context – and where curiosity seeking to understand the good intentions will open for new possibilities. What works in their work is described in seven headlines as context management, focus on the pre-understandings of the involved, building relations and the importance of the power and influence of the narratives on identity, relations and joint actions. Narratives can be de- and reconstructed as a result of joint efforts. Emotions are understood as relational and not just individual phenomena’s. The partnerships take care of this out of a wish for understanding and finding an appropriate response. The article underlines the importance of maintaining the focus on the whole, also when working with details e.g. in connection with psychological assessments.–
Alex Madsen

Hjælpens økologi – glade amatører og professionelle

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Madsen, Alex (Chief Psychologist in the commune of Horsens, head of the Educational Psychology Office, Dental service, Health service and Social service and interventions with children, adolescents and families). The Ecology of help – happy amateurs and professionals. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 613-628. – The article presents three social-political strategies for intervention with marginalized children, adolescents and families. The three strategies can be seen as steps in the historical development of the public welfare intervention or as strategies co-existing in the current way of intervention – more or less non-explicated. The strategies are specifically described as three positions within the scale between experts – amateurs. The first position is expressed as the role of an expert. Specialized professional expertise, diagnostics and a strong exclusion to specific placements are connected with this position. The second position is characterised by localisation of the intervention and attempts to counterbalance the exclusions by an increased spaciousness in the normal educational settings in the communities. This position or strategy is often labelled as a paradigmatic shift, and the article discusses if this really is the case. As a variation of this position is cross-functionally and multi-disciplinary cooperation as a method being discussed, and it’s being questioned whether these approaches actually are, what they claim to be. Finally a third position is presented; the ecology of help, where the penetration of the discrete and formatting clientification into the public social services to marginalized children, adolescents and families is discussed opposite to an ecological intervention, producing help to helping yourself as the most important issue. The positions and the dilemmas are being concretised through stories form a communes social service agency for children and families, and the role and influence of the Educational Psychologist Office (school psychology agency) in regard to the three positions or social political strategies is discussed.
Thomas Nordahl

Læringsmiljø og pedagogisk analyse

I denne artikkelen presenteres de grunnleggende tilnærmingene og noen resultater fra et forskningsbasert utviklingsprosjekt som er gjennomført i Norge. Hensikten er å beskrive hvordan en pedagogiske basert og systemteoretisk analysemodell (lp-modellen) er brukt for å utvikle gode læringsmiljøer i skolen. Evalueringen av prosjektet dokumenterer at dette arbeidet har gitt et bedre læringsmiljø og forbedret elevenes sosiale kompetanse og skolefaglige prestasjoner.

Nordahl, Thomas (Dr. polit., researcher, NOVA; The Norwegian institute of research on upbringing, welfare and aging). Educational environment and pedagogical analysis. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 629-646. – In this article the basic approaches and some results from a research based development project in Norway are presented. The aim is to describe how a pedagogical based model of analysis (the lp-model; learning environment and problem behaviour) based on systemic theory has been used in order to develop qualified learning environments in the public school. The evaluation of the project provides documentation that this work has produced a better learning environment and improved the pupil’s social competences and academic skills.
Jens Andersen og Lars Lihn

Konsultation – en ny flugt væk fra praksis?

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Andersen, Jens (educational psychologist, PPR, Århus, leader of the AKT-team in Århus), Lihn, Lars (educational psychologist, Family Unit of the social service department, Nørhald). Consultation – a new escape from practice? Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 647-662. – Consultation is among the suggestions put forward by the PPR aimed at including more children in the normal environments. The authors of this article, however, suggest that the individual teacher not only needs several explanations from which to choose. The individual teacher is often left in a somewhat powerless position and requests specific methods and tools that will help and support the teacher in the educational environment. In extension, the article features suggestions to the factors one must consider, if the consultation is to succeed, and throws light on some of the benefits to be achieved when one – in place of a facilitating consultation strategy – applies a strategy, where one for a period of time moves closer to where the problems manifest themselves practically.
Søren Hertz

Marlborough konceptet i en dansk sammenhæng – et konkret eksempel på ideen om at skabe oplevelse af sammenhæng

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Hertz, Søren (child and adolescent psychiatrist, PsykCentrum, Hillerød). The Marlborough concept in a Danish context – a specific example of the idea of creating sense of coherence. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 663-679. – In this article experiences from and reflections upon a Danish project inspired by the Educational Unit of the Marlborough Family Service in London is presented. The project has been based on the ideas of establishing partnerships between parents and schools around problem behaviour and in that sense creating sense of coherence for everybody involved. Included in the article are parts of interviews with on one hand the leaders from Marlborough and on the other hand the person evaluating the Danish project. The article discusses central challenges and perspectives concerning the project and points especially on the issue of seeing this project not just as an idea of bringing parents closer to school but also as part of bringing new and engaging ideas into the school in order to make it more spacious.
Jørgen Riber

Han gør det for at få opmærksomhed

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Riber, Jørgen (DISPUK, Danish Institute of Supervision, Staff development, Education and Consultation). He’s just doing this to get attention. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 680-694. – This article has its outset in practice. The author describes a specific work with children with so-called behaviour problems. Based on an understanding of the children’s good intentions and wish for appreciation he establishes relations and contexts that can create new narratives for the children and for their behaviour. He argues that this approach can be implemented in a wider range of educational and pedagogical settings.
Henning Strand

Nye tanke- og praksisformer i PPR-arbejdet

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Strand, Henning (Chief psychologist at the Educational Psychology Agency, commune of Herlev). New ways of thinking and new ways of practice in Educational Psychology. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 695-709. – The article offers reflections and understandings of a shifting paradigm in school psychological practice. The former paradigm in school psychology was based on a linear understanding of causality, and the consequences of this way of thinking are discussed. The author claims that a new dominating practice and new ways of thinking in school psychological services has developed, and the basic understandings derived from circularity and socialconstructionism underlying the ”new paradigm” is highlighted. The consequences of this ”new paradigm” and inclusion of the child’s perspective are underlined together with a following new understanding of the relationship between assessment and intervention. Implications and perspectives are discussed.
Ole V. Rasmussen

Projekt, kategori og intuition – om psykologisk viden i praksis

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Rasmussen, Ole V. (Coordinating psychologist, Greve). Project, category and intuition –psychological knowledge in praxis. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2005. Vol. 42, 710-727. – The article takes a critical stand on the existence of context-free scholastic theories and paradigms in practice in relation to children and youth in difficulties in home, schools etc. Instead is underscored that experienced professionals thinks in concepts and act in ways anchored in practice and developed in facilitating communities of practice. The article refers to the authors practice research in psychological work and reflecting. The main point is that the creativity and intuition of individual psychologist, and the quality of the professional work, is grounded in so called categories developed in communities of practice. In the concept of categories is underscored that the development of knowledge in practice and the organisation of professionals meeting and learning together, is seen as one. At last is pointed to the importance of a practice-developmental-research coupled directly to professional groups and institutions around children and youth as means of both practice and knowledge development.
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