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Ken Vagn Hansen

Konsultation revisited

Siden temanummeret »KONSUL­­TA­TION – et udviklingsprojekt på Pædagogisk Psykologisk Råd­giv­ning i København«, PPR, 39 årgang,1, febr., 2002 har jeg som konsulent, udover københavnerprojektet, deltaget en række andre konsultative udviklingsprojekter, og begrebet »konsultation« er blevet endevendt og diskuteret både med hensyn til form og indhold og med hensyn til implementering i PPR-regi. Det er min opfattelse, at de generelle teoretiske og metodiske holdninger fra første temanummer fortsat holder, men at selve implementeringen er en vanskelige og mere langsommelig proces end først antaget, og at det er spørgsmålet, om konsultation som overordnet faglig forholdemåde kan implementeres fuldt ud i PPR-regi.

Hansen, Ken Vagn (Psychologist, Copenhagen). Consultation Revisited. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 4-13. – As a consultant for various consultative projects, the author concludes, that the arguments in favour of consultation in the school psychological work are: the pressures on school psychologists to create short term solutions to school problems, the need to enhance the personal competencies of teachers, and a new understanding of psychological work. Having followed the work in Copenhagen for some years, he deals with some points of criticism directed towards the development of a consultative practice in Copenhagen. The schools have not asked for any changes. No, but it is in the nature of psychology to challenge old beliefs; there is, however, a need to intensify dialogue with teacher and heads. Special education, traditionally a main task for school psychologists, loses attention. But; school psychologists cannot solve the teachers’ teaching problems. Psychologists do not see children anymore. No, but the goal is to help teachers to create new insights about their pupils. School psychology lets the teacher down. The real let-down is that the teachers have been brought up to be dependent on psychologists; what is needed is a professional complementarity that enhances the self-knowledge of teachers and their lines of action.
Pernille Brandt og Tine Rosenberg Larsen

Et udviklingsarbejde med effekt i den offentlige sektor

Forebyggelse har været på dagsordenen i mange år. Vores erfaringer fra arbejdet hermed i den kommunale sektor gennem de sidste 8 år er, at effekten af en forebyggende indsats ikke altid opleves at stå mål med indsatsen.  

Brandt, Pernille & Larsen, Tine Rosenberg (Management psychologist and development consultant). A Development Project in the Public Sector. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 14-44. – In the municipality of Græsted-Gilleleje, a developmental project dealing with the school-psychological work, has been going on for some years. Reflecting on the problems described and relating these to a large body of philosophical and psychological theories, of which Heidegger, Luhmann and Watzlawick are of special importance, the authors instigated a project, inspired by the Marlborough approach (Dawson & McHugh). The results are, that the schools and the school psychological services are in an important process of developing a dialogue, founded on a systemic, consultative basis.
Jette Lentz

Udvikling af PPR som organisation – set i relation til implementering af konsultative metoder

På Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning i København distrikt Syd, er vi i gang med en proces, hvor indsatsen overfor vore brugere både sker på individ niveau og ud fra en konsultativ praksis. Med baggrund i en socialkonstruktivistisk forståelse præsenteres PPR som et supervisions- og netværkscenter, der forbindes i samarbejdende relationer med andre instanser i indsatsen overfor børn og unge, hvis udvikling kræver en særlig indsats. I forbindelse med implementering af konsultative metoder i distriktet er der iværksat en mængde af forskellige aktiviteter. Erfaringerne og evaluering af PPRs nye arbejdsmåde inddrages.

Lentz, Jette (Deputy chief school psychologist in Copenhagen). Developing the School Psychological Office as an Organization. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 45-56. – In a process of implementing a consultative approach to the school psychological work in the South District of Copenhagen, the office has been presented as a supervisory network center, cooperating with others in the efforts to deal with the needs of children whose development require a special contribution. Many new initiatives have been taken, and a number of results have been obtained: at some schools, individual referrals of children have dropped by 50%, discussions with heads and courses for heads have been very well received. New projects are amongst others more focus on the needs of children between 0-6, and a group of speech-therapists trying to implement a consultative approach
Ken Vagn Hansen

Hvad med Den Femte Provins? – om betydningen af meta-rum i komplekse systemer

Historien om »Den Femte Provins« er en klassiker indenfor systemteoretisk tænkning og praksis. Historien bygger på et gammelt irsk sagn om forholdene i oldtidens Irland, hvor høvdingene kæmpede mod hinanden. I sagnet berettes der om, at hver fjerde år drog høvdingene til Den Femte Provins, som var et ingenmandsland, hvor høvdingene kunne tale åbent, alle synspunkter havde ligeret, ligesom der herskede ligeværd. Høvdingene var frigjort fra deres binding til klanen og medbragte ikke deres klan-kendetegn eller våben.

Hansen, Ken Vagn (Psychologist in Copenhagen). The Fifth Province – about the Importance of Meta-Discussion Rooms in Complex Systems. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 57-63. – As a part of an ongoing process in Copenhagen to implement a consultative approach in the school psychological services, a discussion forum was established on the lines of the Fifth Province. I.e. no agenda, no outgoing actions, no minutes from meetings etc. For the first year the process was found very satisfying, but rising demands in the group to seek influence on everyday actions and on administrative procedures in the surrounding world brought the group to a clash with the administrative system. Efforts are made, however, to secure a more reflective discussion practice within the organization itself.
Anne Birgitte Foss og Grethe Pedersen

Udviklingsmuligheder i samarbejdet mellem PPR og skolerne om børn med særlige behov

Nedenstående artikel er to skolepsykologers fortælling om et udviklingsarbejde mellem PPR-Nordvest og Holbergskolen i skoleåret 03/04. Skolepsykologerne er optaget af, hvilke perspektiver et intenst samarbejde mellem PPR og skolen kan frembringe på den fælles vanskelige opgave at sikre kvalitet i varetagelsen af børn med særlige behov.

Foss, Anne Birgitte & Pedersen, Grethe (School psychologist and deputy chief school psychologist in the North West district in Copenhagen). Possibilities to Develop Cooperation between Schools and School Psychology concerning Children with Special Needs. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 64-68. – At two schools in the district extra time was allotted to teachers to allow them to meet with the psychologist on Thursday mornings. The project comprised five elements: supervision of teachers, developing plans for action, advice from a special school for children with ADHD, parental work, and a therapeutic group for pupils. The evaluation of the project was very positive and supports the efforts to develop such projects.
Anita Maj Berner

Holder det? Faciliterende supervision i en konsultativ ramme

I de sidste 16 måneder har jeg været ansat i PPR København, distrikt Syd på Amager. Her har jeg bl.a. arbejdet med faciliterende supervision med lærerteam. I den forbindelse har jeg gjort mig forskellige overvejelser. Jeg finder det særligt interessant, hvordan en faglig personlig udvikling hos supervisanderne (lærerne i teamet) påvirkes i mødet med skolekulturen! Kan den udvikling, der sker i supervisionsrummet overleve mødet med den »gamle skolekultur«?

Berner, Anita Maj (School psychologist in the South District in Copenhagen). Does it Work? – Facilitative Supervision in a Consultative Framework. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 69-76. – Reflecting on her experiences from a umber of supervisory sessions with groups of teachers, the author argues the need to engage teachers in facilitative supervision (as opposed to advisory supervision), and stresses the importance of having these sessions at the school psychological office and not in a room at the school. The teachers feel freer, there are no disturbances, and this furthers the teachers’ engagement and their ability to produce useful thoughts and reflections, and the consequences for their dealing with specific children in their classes. Can such developments of teachers’ thoughts, emotions and attitudes survive their arrival back in an efficient and perhaps tough school setting? The answers depend on the attitudes of the heads and of the psychologists themselves. To what degree are psychologists a part of the efficiency culture of the school?
Maj-Britt Andersson, Jette Bøgh, John Olsen og Lone Aggernæs Thornberg

Projektet: At leve den gode historie ved brug af »Den værdsættende samtale« i Villa Fem

I Børne- og Ungerådgivningen i Helsingør Kommune har 4 psykologer i en periode over 2 år arbejdet med ledelsen i en større socialpædagogisk daginstitution inspireret af tankerne bag »den værdsættende samtale«. Sideløbende men uafhængigt heraf har Børne- og Ungeforvaltningen arbejdet med en udvidelse af rummeligheden i daginstitutioner og folkeskole. Det har været spændende at opleve, hvordan tænkningens indførelse har spillet ind på hele institutionens kultur, – og fortsat gør det – også set i relation til det rummelighedsskabende arbejde, som det jo ligeledes står overfor.

Andersson, Maj-Britt; Bøgh, Jette; Olsen, John; Thornberg, Lone Aggernæs (Psychologists at the school psychological office in Elsinore). The Project: To live the Good Story by using the Appreciative Inquiry at »Villa Five«. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 77-95. – A large day-care institution for children contacted the school psychological office with a request to evaluate whether their goal seemed to be achieved. Their goal was to reduce social inequality. Four psychologists introduced the A.I. method, and a two-year project took place. The positive outcome of this project is deemed to rely on the following conditions: the project was management based, the role of the psychologists was maintained as consultants, the framework was clearly defined, the structure of meetings was maintained, the importance of the reflecting teams was striking. Long lasting effects seem to be, that the method is now deeply rooted in the institution, that the teachers scold much less, that the teachers have fewer negative expectancies to the parents. One head explains, that he reminds himself of three things before meeting children or employees: take it easy, be curious, listen!
Martin Wohlers

Konsultativt arbejde i en amtslig psykolog rådgivning

Denne artikel vil beskrive hvordan Amtsafdelingen i PPR-København har arbejdet på at implementere konsultative arbejdsformer, primært i form af supervision af lærerteam. Desuden vil artiklen indeholde en beskrivelse af nogle væsentlige forhold, som har indflydelse på konsultativt arbejde i den vidtgående specialundervisning. Endelig vil der være nogle personlige refleksioner over nogle af de problemstillinger, man møder som konsultativt arbejdende psykolog. Artiklen er ikke nødvendigvis udtryk for Amtsafdelingens samlede opfattelse af det konsultative arbejde, men er udtryk for min personlige mening, især afsnittene om forholdene i den vidtgående specialundervisning og den afsluttende del.

Wohlers, Martin (School psychologist at the department for severely handicapped children of the school psychological office of Copenhagen). Consultative Work with Teachers of Children with severe Handicaps. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 96-104. – Supervising teachers of children with severe handicaps poses some specific challenges: the children are typically placed at a terminal station, all teaching is individually planned, all teachers work in teams, there is a strong tendency to think in linear causality, teaching is a very broad concept, the parents are typically sad or angry. The first experiences from consultation with such teachers are positive: consultative supervision is a useful tool, the schools differ as to their readiness to receive consultation, heads must feel obliged to give time and space to teachers.
Grethe Pedersen, Lotte Schiøttz og Jette Lentz

To-årigt efteruddannelsesforløb i konsultation for psykologer i PPR-København

Fra 2001 til 2003 har 25 psykologer i København gennemført et internt uddannelsesforløb i konsultation som metode. Lignende forløb er igangsat fra 2003 til 2005. Nedenstående er kursusholdernes redegørelse for indhold og forløb i kurserne. Endvidere formidles uddrag af deltagende psykologers evaluering af kurset og artiklen sluttes med kursusholdernes overvejelser over uddannelsesforløbene.

Pedersen, Grethe; Schiøttz, Lotte; Lentz, Jette (Deputy chief psychologists in the district NW, NE and South in the school psychological office of Copenhagen). A two-year In-Service Training Project of Consultation for Psychologists in Copenhagen. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 105-108. – At this time 25 psychologists have completed the project, consisting of 4 hours every fortnight for two years; altogether 160 hours. The results are seen as very positive, and the participants experienced mutual inspiration, meeting colleagues from other districts. The authors, who were responsible for the project conclude, that you may get somewhere through teaching and discussions, but that the effects rely on the participants’ personal development. They also point out, that the internal structures of the school psychological office needs to be developed in order to match the consultative way of working.
Kurt Mariager

Kontrakter i supervision

Denne artikel beskriver kontraktens betydning ved konsultative supervisionsydelser fra en PPR organisation til en folkeskole. Udover praktiske eksempler på kontraktudformning, påpeges dilemmaer for såvel deltagere som ledelse ved indgåelse af kontrakter, og hvordan disse hidtil er søgt løst.

Mariager, Kurt (School psychologist at the school psychological office of Copenhagen). Contracts within Supervision. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning 2005. Vol. 42, 109-118. – Based on experiences from recently instigated supervisory projects in special schools, the author admonishes, that the following steps be respected: clarify expectations from teacher and heads – be specific about the method, also in the written contract – inform participants on beforehand using folders, articles etc. – specify a contract about the method and the organization of the project, and have all parties accept – define your role and responsibility with the head in a way that works – put into the contract how and when the project is to be evaluated
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