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Kirsten Baltzer og Susan Tetler

Aktuelle tendenser i dansk specialpædagogisk forskning på børneområdet

I artiklen præsenteres udviklingen i den internationale forskning, der har bevæget sig fra en diagnosebaseret handicapforståelse til at se handicap i dets relationelle aspekter. Parallelt til denne bevægelse ses en udvikling i de specialpædagogiske paradigmer mod et flerparadigmatisk stadium. Dansk specialpædagogisk forskning i perioden 1996-2000 analyseres i forhold til de internationale tendenser. Analysegrundlaget er en spørgeskemaundersøgelse til forskningsinstitutioner, gennemgang af forskningsberetninger og artikler i fagtidsskrifter. Undersøgelsens konklusion er, at der er en meget begrænset specialpædagogisk forskning i Danmark i perioden, og de enkelte projekter placerer sig i overvejende grad inden for et enkelt paradigme. Projekter inden for en flerparadigmatisk og relationel forståelse træffes primært i forskning ved Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet. Dette billede er ikke ændret væsentligt i tiden efter 2000. Kirsten Baltzer og Susan Tetler Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet

Baltzer, Kirsten & Tetler, Susan (Lecturers at The Pedagogical University of Denmark). Current tendencies in Danish Special Educational Research on Children. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 2, 136-162. – The development in international research is moving from understanding of handicap based on diagnoses towards a relational understanding. At the same time there is a development in special educational paradigms towards a multi-paradigmatic stage. Danish special educational research in the period 1996-2000 is analyzed in relation to these international tendencies. The analysis is based on an enquiry at research institutes and a study of reports and articles from journals. The conclusion is, that Danish special educational research in this period is very limited, and that each project typically adheres to just one paradigm ( the psycho-medical, the sociological, and the organizational paradigms). The main areas were: reading, autism and ADHD. Projects of a multi-paradigmatic nature and projects focusing on the relational aspect of handicap are mainly found at the Pedagogical University of Denmark. The challenge is to instigate more research about: how handicaps are perceived, the psychological prerequisites for inclusion, the didactical aspects of special education, and an analysis of the concept formation of special needs: how are the terms constructed and how do they become a part of our consciousness, our language and our cultural instructions. – Bjørn Glæsel
Bengt Persson

Specialpedagogisk forskning i Sverige. Problemställningar, erfarenheter och perspektiv

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Bengt (Professor at the University of Gothenburg). Special educational Research in Sweden. Problems, Experience and Perspective. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 2, 163-180. – A conceptual framework within which the analysis is performed is presented in English on p 165-166 in this issue. There is a dominance of the categorical perspective in recent research in Sweden. It is estimated that about 80 % of the reports can be referred to this perspective. A large part of the research is seen to be outdated in the light of the radical changes in the school system in the last 20-30 years; much of the research deals with pupils in segregated teaching and very little deals with teaching in heterogenous classes. What needs to be developed is research combining the two perspectives. A broader approach is also needed combining sp.ed. research with research within social studies and the science of culture. Another venue is to study, how different schools adhering to the concept of inclusion succeed. Finally far too little research has been done abt. multi-lingual and multi-cultural teaching. – Bjørn Glæsel
Peder Haug

Regimer i forskning om spesialundervisning i Norge

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Haug, Peder (Lecture at the Teacher Training College of Volda). Reigns in Special Educational Research in Norway, Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 2, 181-204. – While Norway has been a pioneer in the development of a policy towards children with special needs, the same cannot be said of its research. In the first reign of research (1960-1969) most research had a categorical perspective, and its objectives were primarily to solve the problems in technical ways. In the next period (1970-1989) radical changes took place in the society, the transgression from modernity to postmodernity. The research built more upon constructivism and subjectivism, and knowledge is seen as relational and depending on context. The research, however, dealt more with diagnoses and treatment, and did not incorporate the new ideological tendencies. The third period (1990- ) brought a radical change: the state funded special schools were closed as were the central institution for people with severe general disabilities. The research now focuses clearly on the politically decided changes and the gap between these and the practical realities. The challenge now are: can the categorical and the relational perspectives be combined ? Should research be an instrument to implement politically decided changes? There is a need for critical research that has a stronger theoretical foundation. Can we expect a stronger focus on individuals again as a result of the market orientated individualism ? – Bjørn Glæsel
Joel Kivirauma

Specialpædagogik som videnskabelig disciplin i Finland undersøgt i lyset af akademiske afhandlinger

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Kivirauma, Joel. Special Education as a Scientific Discipline in Finland in the Light of Doctoral Theses. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 2, 205-225. – After a discussion of paradigm, three pedagogical paradigms are presented: historical, experimental an qualitative. From 1951-1999 a total of 44 doctoral theses within special education were published. Of these, 27 were quantitative and 13 qualitative (table 2). The qualitative paradigm is expected to dominate the research in the coming years. – Bjørn Glæsel
Gretar L. Marinósson

Specialpædagogisk forskning i Island – problemstillinger, erfaringer og perspektiver

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Marinosson, Gretar, L. Special Educational Research in Iceland – Problems, Experiences, and Perspective. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 2, 226-239. – From 1971 to 2002 a total of 88 reports were published (table 1). Of theses 55 came from pedagogical institutions. Their setting is typically the teaching of children with special needs. 23 came from other institutions, typically aiming at individual difficulties of diagnosed children. The modest number of report makes it difficult to describe tendencies. Compared with the situation in other countries, Iceland is thought to be 20 ys. behind the other Nordic Countries, and 30-50 ys. behind Great Britain and USA. Special education should be studied as an integrated part of teaching. It should not rely solely on logical positivistic assumptions but also on the contextual character of social phenomena. – Bjørn Glæsel
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