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Svend Kreiner & Mogens Hansen

Analyse af fejl i læseprøver

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Kreiner, Svend & Hansen, Mogens (Statistician at the University of Copenhagen and professor at the Danish Pedgogical University). Analyses of Errors in Reading Tests. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 255-267. – On the basis of earlier investigations with Ravens Progressive Matrices and a Danish derivate named CHIPS, the authors applied an analysis of errors in the silent reading test SUP, which has been revised and now is named the DL-test. Seven error aspects were applied: graphic likeness, phonetic likeness, whether an acceptable sentence-structure was retained, whether the sentence content was retained, whether the pupil tried to spell, whether the error was corrected, whether the pupil abandoned the word. The analysis concluded in an estimation of, whether the pupil performed at the global stage (semantic focus), the analysis-synthesis stage (graphic or phonetic focus), or the whole stage (semantic, graphic and phonetic focus). The results led to a clarification of the error aspects and an important addition was made: whether the meaning of a word was retained in spite of the error. The results are presented as valid and promising for their continued work. The authors do, however, admonish, that new investigations should be made. – B. Glæsel
A. B. Scharff

Modernitetens konsekvenser for læringsbegrebet på de institutionaliserede uddannelser

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Scharff, A.B. The Consequences of Modernity for the Concept of Learning in Institutionalized Education. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 268-284. – Drawing on several sociological and psychological approaches (Giddens, Bourdieu, Luhmann a.o.) the author discusses the consequences for teaching. The primary goal of institutional teaching is the formation of viable human beings. This requires personal competences of a flexible nature. Shared experiences, dialogue and practice should result in a common, cultural identity. This is also a prerequisite for the development of inter-cultural competences. Early specialization should be avoided in order to enhance social and flexible communication within different social strata. This requires of teachers to be open, knowledgeable and appreciative and all in all useful models for their students. If this is to be achieved, much in-service training and supervision of teachers is necessary. – B. Glæsel
Jan Tønnesvang

Skitse til et subjekt-relationelt grundlag for pædagogisk tænkning

Artiklen skitserer, hvorledes man med en subjekt-relationel tilgang til pædagogisk (og pædagogisk-psykologisk) tænkning kan tage højde for konstruktivistiske og socialkonstruktionistiske perspektivers bidrag til forståelsen af selvets dannelse, læring og udvikling uden at tage disse perspektivers erkendelsesnihilistiske grundpræmisser med i købet. Kernen i den subjekt-relationelle forståelse af selvet (og det psykiske i det hele taget) er, at den søger at forstå selvets kompleksitet udfra en samtidig fastholden af dets horisontale forbundethed med verden og dets vertikale forbundethed med sig selv. Pointen i forhold til de socialkonstruktionistiske og konstruktivistiske perspektiver, er, at de kan bidrage til forståelsen af henholdsvis selvets horisontale og vertikale forbundethed men hver for sig ikke forklarer forholdet mellem de horisontale og et vertikale dimensioner tilfredsstillende. Artiklen afrundes med en række påpegninger af nogle udfordringer, der knytter sig til en videre udvikling af en subjekt-relationel forståelse som grundlag for pædagogisk (og pædagogisk-psykologisk) tænkning. Af adjunkt, ph.d. Jan Tønnesvang Psykologisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet

Tønnesvang, Jan (Lecturer at the University of Aarhus). An Outline of a Subject-Relational Foundation of Pedagogical Thinking. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 285-298. – A subject-relational approach to pedagogical thinking may encompass constructivistic and social constructionistic perspectives on the understanding of learning, education and development of the self without recognizing their nihilistic epistemology. The subject-relational understanding of the self is, at the same time to recognize its horizontal relationship with the world and its perpendicular relation to itself. The constructivistic and social constructionistic cannot explain the relationship between the horizontal and the perpendicular dimensions in a satisfying way. The implications are, that responsibility or own learning becomes a co-responsibility for own learning and the learning of others; that either individual or relational responsibility becomes individual-relational responsibility; that construction of the reality for oneself and for others becomes discovery, articulation and construction of the reality for oneself and others; that narration becomes personal and realistic. – B. Glæsel
Erik Johansen & Henning Qvist

Associationsanalyse med Rorschach – et eksempel

Denne artikel er et supplement til en tidligere artikel »ASSOCIATIONSANALYSE: IndleVelse med Rorschach«1. Dens tilblivelse skyldes det forhold, at vi er kommet over en sag, som giver særlig mulighed for dokumentation af analysens kvaliteter. Det er i almindelig PPR-sammenhæng sjældent, at så tydelige belæg foreligger, bl.a. i form af tegninger som er blevet til under den efterfølgende terapi. Af Erik Johansen og Henning Qvist

Johansen, E., & Quist, H. Association Analysis with Rorschach – an example. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 299-314. – The article shows a case in accordance with the Association Analysis as described in the original paper: Johansen, E. og Qvist, H. (1999): Associationsanalyse: Indlevelse med Rorschach. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 36-4: 296-318. It is claimed that the analysis of a nine year old boy’s answers draws a useful idiographic picture. This picture showed to be consistent with information from the school and it was confirmed during the therapy with the parents. It is especially valuable to notice how the images of the parents were reflected in his answers. Use of the Association Analysis as a method, which does not put children in an inexpedient situation concerning loyalty to the parents is briefly mentioned. – E. Johansen & H. Quist
Boje Juhl-Petersen

Børnehaveklasseelevernes sprog 2001-2002 ved 3 københavnske skoler

Niveauet af den sproglige kompetence hos skolebegyndere har gennem de senere år været for nedadgående. Specielt har tendensen været særlig mærkbar på skoler med høj frekvens af tosprogede elever. Der er i skoleåret 2001-2002 foretaget en undersøgelse af elevernes beherskelse af ganske enkle sproglige komponenter. Denne artikel fortæller om, hvad undersøgelsen nåede frem til. Den kommer også med bud på, hvordan de blotlagte problemer kan imødegås og dermed afhjælpes. Af talehørelærer Boje Juhl-Petersen Københavns Kommune

Juhl-Petersen, Boje (Speech therapist at the School Psychological Office of Copenhagen). The Language of Pre-school Children in three Classes in Copenhagen in 2001-2002. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 315-318. – A survey was made in three different pre-school classes, differing in social-economic status and the percentage of bi-lingual children. The survey comprised impressive functions (reading direction, colours, sizes, spatial position, names of fingers and concept-formation) and expressive functions (knowledge of words). The results from the low-status class, in which 95% of the children were bi-lingual, are much lower than those from the other classes. The author discusses his results and suggests a number of measures to enhance an early, linguistic development, including an approach, where the parents receive teaching at the same time. – B. Glæsel
Karen Byrial Jensen

Children’s Communication Checklist

I sit arbejde som psykolog støder man sommetider på børn, der på en eller anden måde har kommunikationsvanskeligheder og vanskeligheder med at begå sig i det sociale samvær. Ofte er børnenes omgang med klassekammeraterne »skæv« og sommetider får de sagt det helt forkerte både i undervisningsammenhænge og på legepladsen. Måske har de få eller ingen kammerater. Ofte reagerer de uhensigtsmæssigt i kommunikationen. Nogle af disse børn får én til at tænke på sproglige vanskeligheder, andre på om de mon har »autistiske træk«, eller hører ind under autismespektret. Testet med WISC, er det ikke sikkert, man ser noget særligt usædvanligt, og testet med traditionelle talepædagogiske prøver ses ofte heller ikke specifikke vanskeligheder i større grad. Kan det være børn med semantisk pragmatisk vanskeligheder? Og hvordan kan man finde ud af dette? Af cand.pæd.psych. Karen Byrial Jensen PPR, Fyns Amt

Jensen, Karen Byriel (Psychologist at the School Psychological Office of the County of Fyn). The Children’s Communication Checklist. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 319-328. – The C.C.C. was developed by D.V.M. Bishop in 1998 and is currently being translated to be published in Denmark. The author has been using this test in her own work for 3 years. She finds it most useful as a supplement in her psychological assessments. – B. Glæsel
Kurt Kristensen

Kan de skandinaviske perspektiver på integration og inklusion implementeres i udviklingslandene?

Af Kurt Kristensen Seniorkonsulent for specialpædagogik og udvikling Uganda Hovedtale ved 25th Annual International Psychology Colloquium: Education For All – How Inclusive Can You Get? Nyborg, Danmark 25.-29. juli 2002, afholdt af International School Psychology Association Artiklen er oversat fra engelsk af Dorte H. Silver

Kristensen, Kurt (Senior consultant of Special Education in Uganda). Can the Scandinavian Perspectives on Integration and Inclusion be Implemented in Developing Countries? Pædagogisk Psykologisk Rådgivning, 2003, Vol. 40, 3, 329-345. – Discussing and comparing experiences from many years in Denmark and in Uganda, the author presents a number of conclusions: it has been possible to implement both structural and qualitative aspects in Uganda; the philosophy of inclusion was a simple choice, because inclusive education is the only possible solution in most African countries. As for teaching methods it is a complicated issue due to large differences in technical and economical resources. In general it is thought, that the Scandinavian Perspectives and the Salamanca Declaration have indeed had a great inspirational value in both Kenya and Uganda. – B. Glæsel
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