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Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift
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DE SENESTE NUMRE » 38.årgang - 2001 » 38.årgang nr.3 Juli 2001
 
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Jørn Nielsen

PPR – visioner for fremtiden

Denne artikel uddyber de synspunkter, der præsenteres på Undervisningsministeriets årsmøde for de ledende PPR-psykologer, maj 2201. Den tager sit udgangspunkt i en beskrivelse af tendenser og nyere viden indenfor den danske børne- og ungegruppe og søger at argumentere for, at implikationerne heraf giver nye perspektiver for PPR´s indsats overfor det samlede felt omkring børn og unge i risikosituationer.

Nielsen, Jørn (Clinical psychologist). PPR – Visons for the Future. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 171-190. – The school psychological services (PPR) are faced with a variety of new tasks in the light of societal changes in recent ys. Especially important is the implementation of new research-based knowledge. Three examples: salutogenesis and resilience. Inspired by Rutter et al. It is proposed that pathogenesis is to some extent substituted by salutogenesis. The importance of relationships. Stern, Rutter et al. strongly advocate focusing on relationships in stead of individual malperformance. An extended model of socialization. The large amount of time spent in schools and institutions put demands on the teachers to take more active part in the socialization of children.
Emil Kruuse

Hvordan står det til med danskernes læsefærdighed ?

Siden begyndelsen af 1990’erne har der været livlig debat om danskernes læsekompetence. Denne diskussion skyldes først og fremmest den internationale læseundersøgelse af 9- og 14-åriges læsefærdighed, og den er holdt i kog af undersøgelser, der belyser, hvor gode børn er blevet til at læse efter 1990. Desuden har undersøgelser af voksnes læsekompetence og avisomtaler af danskernes læsefærdighed før og nu bidraget til at interessen for danskernes læsefærdighed holdes vedlige. I det følgende refereres en række læseundersøgelser, hvoraf flere har givet anledning til mediernes bevågenhed. Endvidere vurderes flere af disse undersøgelsers konklusioner ud fra metodiske synsvinkler til belysning af konklusionernes bæredygtighed. Denne artikel er en ajourføring af to tidligere artikler: »Danskernes læsekompetence før og nu« i Unge Pædagoger, Kruuse (1998) og »Hvordan går det med danskernes læsekompetence ?« i Unge Unger, Kruuse (2000 a).

Kruuse, Emil (Former chief school psychologist). How Well do the Danish Read? Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 191-211. – After an international reading survey placed Denmark in a low reading category for 9 and 14 ys. old, many efforts have been made to enhance the reading in Danish schools, and many nationwide and local surveys have been performed to evaluate the effects of these efforts. Many of these surveys are claimed by the author to have serious flaws. Larsen is cited for having written that it is doubtful, whether Danish children feel motivated enough to work as long and concentratedly that an international reading survey demands. Mylov is cited for his doubts that the level of difficulty of a text, translated into many languages, can be the same in each country, thus making comparisons invalid. The author describes a number of smaller, local surveys and finds several grounds to object: e. g. a number of classes have volunteered to participate and may therefore not be representative. None of these surveys compare with own earlier data and are in stead compared with the large national and international data that suffer the above mentioned weaknesses- In this light is not possible to measure the effects of the local efforts to raise the reading levels of pupils.
Jan Mejding

Danskernes læsefærdighed - igen igen



Mejding, Jan (Senior researcher at The Danish Pedagogical University). Reading Competences in Denmark, Again, Again –. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 212- 220. – This article is a critique of the above article by Kruuse (PPR, Vol. 48, 3, 191-211). Kruuse’s citation of Larsen abt. the possible lack of concentration of the pupils being a possible cause of the inferior results of Danish results are put aside; the pupils were observed while doing the tests and were found to be generally well motivated and active during the test. As to the uncertainty of the level of difficulty of the test in different countries, as mentioned by Mylov, the author argues that great efforts of a highly competent and internationally recognized quality were made to ensure, that the test did have the the same level of difficulty in each country. Kruuse’s point that all random tests are somewhat uncertain and that this has not been shown in the articles, nor the magnitude of such uncertainty is opposed as being simply false; in all these articles standard errors etc. are published. The conclusion is that Kruuse’s criticism is unfounded. His viewpoints are insufficiently documented and invalid.
Peter Allerup

Svar på Emil Kruuse’s indlæg vedr. læseundersøgelser



Allerup, Peter (Senior researcher, statistician, at the Danish Pedagogical University). A Response to the Article by Emil Kruuse. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 221-226. – Emil Kruuse’s critique of the international reading survey and of the surveys made by the DPU (this journal, Vol. 48, 3, 191-211) has serious flaws. In his article he fails to come up to his own definition of the demands to scientific methods. The methods are: Control – Precision – Measurability Representativity – Validity – Power of Generalisation. Kruuse makes the error to point these demands at the observations, i.e. the pupils or the reading tasks. However, demands of methods should be pointed at the formal framwork in which the observations are described and understood. In this case this implies the statistical models. This failure is embarrassing and may be due to the fact that Kruuse does not concern himself with difficult matters such as mathematical models. The Rasch model, which has been used in the surveys made by the DPU, contains these important demands: 1. That the model can be controlled specifically. 2. That the parameters of the model can be estimated by a defined degree of precision. 3. That measurability is to be found as objective possibilities of comparison under the model. 4. That the validity of the model may be determined by internal and external criteria. Kruuse’s critique is found to be imprecise, below level and invalid.
Pia Guttorm Andersen, Niels Egelund & Dorthe Lau

Tværfagligt og tværsektorielt samarbejde i en kommune

Erfaringer fra et udviklingsarbejde I Hinnerup kommune har tværfagligt og tværsektorielt samarbejde eksisteret i mange år. Støttet af midler fra SIBU har den tværfaglige indsats i kommunen fået en særdeles fremtrædende placering. I Hinnerup kommune – og således praktiseret gennem projektet HIKOSA – Hinnerup kommune i samarbejde – er der fokuseret kraftigt på omorganisering og efteruddannelse, med henblik på at fremme det tværfaglige og tværsektorielle samarbejde i sager om de svagest stillede børn og unge. Denne artikel bringer en projektbeskrivelse og en sammenfatning af de resultater, der er opnået i HIKOSA.

Andersen, Pia, Guttorm; Egelund, Niels; Lau, Dorthe (Head teacher; professor of psychology at The Danish Pedagogical University and student of psychology). Interdisciplinary and Intersectional Cooperation in an Municipality. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 227-236. – In the municipality of Hinnerup, a project has been instigated, supported by state fundings. The aims are to prevent risk by combining the efforts of the social services, the health service, the schools, and the school psychological services. 4 groups were formed with participants from each sector, each covering abt. 25% of the municipality and its population of 0 - 18 ys. The evaluation comprised qualitative and quantitative data, and an external evaluator was responsible for the process. The findings are: all agree on the aims of the project, many difficulties can be ascribed to different traditions in the sectors and to some degree to competition between these, the in-built training was vied very positively as was the organization of the project. If the effects of the project are to be strengthened and continued, 3 demands are obvious: that the training continues, that the organization is upheld, and that extra resources are allocated.
Lone Lorenzen

Sammenligning af WISC og WISC-IIIDK ved elever med svære læsevanskeligheder

Projektet er kommet i stand på Taleinstituttet i Århus efteråret 2000. Baggrunden har været at undersøgelser med den nye WISC-III af elever med svære læsevanskeligheder gav en markant ændret kognitiv profil i forhold til en tidligere testning med den gamle WISC. Læseklasseeleverne så generelt ud til at score dårligere på WISC-III i forhold til WISC, specielt i den sproglige del var elevernes scale score betydeligt forringede.

Lorentzen, Lone (Psychologist at the Institute for Speech in Aarhus). Comparison of WISC and WISC III of Pupils With Severe Reading Difficulties. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 237-242. – A study comprising 16 pupils with severe reading difficulties was performed. Earlier WISC results (mean age 12.4) were compared with WISC III results (mean age 14.6). Verbal scale scores were (average). WISC: Inf. 6, Sim. 9, Arith. 7, Vocabulary 8, Comprehension 9, Ciphers 6. WISC III; 7, 7, 6, 6, 6, 6. Verbal IQ was 85 and later on 77. These findings are discussed; have the pupils changed? Is the WISC III a more valid and better constructed test?
John Olsen

Kronborgundersøgelsen

Hovedresultater fra en spørgeskema- undersøgelse i Helsingør Kommunale skolevæsen i forbindelse med forklaringsforsøg på opnåelse af forskellige læseresultater

Olsen, John (School psychologist in Elsinore). The Kronborg Investigation. Psykologisk Pædagogisk Rådgivning, 2001, Vol. 48, 3, 243-258. – From 1995-2001 much effort has been put into enhancement of the pupils’ reading and writing abilities. However, consistent differences between schools and classes have been found without apparent explanations. Class size, percentage of lessons with two teachers, and percentage of bilingual pupils has no effect. Therefore all teachers (115) and heads (14) were asked to answer a questionnaire abt. possible explanations. No very clear conclusions can be drawn but the following six recommendations are emphasized: 1 more weekly lesson, 2 Exchange of experiences with good teaching, 3 More support from heads, 4 Involvement of all parents, 5 In-service training of teachers, 6 Sp. ed. only to pupils with clearly defined needs.
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